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CONTENTS
                                           
   EDITORIAL        4
   THE CLUNY CHARTER CHEST LETTERS     5
   A TRUST FAITHFULLY CARRIED OUT     6
   CLUNY AND DUNDEE     8
   LAND TENURE IN THE ANCIENT HIGHLANDS    14
   CLANSMEN IN THE BLACK WATCH MUTINY    15
   WHO WAS LADY JEANNE MACPHERSON    16
   JAMES 'OSSIAN' MACPHERSON'S ANCESTRY    20
   [LAUCHLAN MACPHERSON OF STRATHMASHIE] SOLDIER, SCHOLAR AND POET    25
   THE ALVIE WEDDING OF 1850 (POEM)    26
   UAMH CHLUANAIDH (CLUNY'S CAVE)    28
   LEARNING AND USING GAELIC    31
   THE CLAN HOUSE (POEM)    34
   THE CLAN HOUSE    34
   SCOTTISH GRAMAPHONE RECORDS    36
   LORD DRUMALBYN AND WHITESANDS    36
   A MACPHERSON HOUSE IN ONTARIO    37
   CLANSMEN OF THE YEAR (Alan G. Macpherson and Lloyd C. Macpherson    39
   THE CLAN RALLY 1963    41
   THE 1964 RALLY    43
   REVIEWS    44
   NEAR AND FAR    47
   BRANCH REPORTS    48
   MACPHERSONS AND THE CLAN CHATTAN ASSOCIATION    53
   NEAR AND FAR    51
   OBITUARIES    55
   A CLAN WEDDING    56
   BALANCE SHEET    57
                                                                                   
Price to Non-Members, and for additional Copies. 7/6
                                                                                   
Contributions and all Branch Reports for the 1965 Number should reach the Editor as early as possible and certainly not later than 1st December 1964.
                                                                                   
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CREAG DHUBH
                  
No. 16        CLUNY CHARTER CHEST NUMBER           1964

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             THE ANNUAL OF
THE CLAN MACPHERSON
ASSOCIATION

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CLAN MACPHERSON ASSOCIATION

_____________________

Hon. President
EWEN GEORGE MACPHERSON OF CLUNY MACPHERSON
Chief of the Clan

Hon. Vice-Presidents
Lt.-Col. A. K. MACPHERSON OF PITMAIN, M.V.O., D.L.
Senior Chieftain in the Clan

The Right Hon. LORD MACPHERSON OF DRUMOCHTER

The Right Hon. LORD MACPHERSON OF DRUMALBYN AND WHITESANDS

Lt.-Col. CLUNY MACPHERSON, C.M.G., M.D., F.R.C.S.

Bailie HUGH MACPHERSON, O.L.J. F.S.A. Scot

Hon. J. GORDON MACPHERSON, J.P
.

COUNCIL

Officers of the Association

Chairman
ALLAN G. MACPHERSON

Vice-Chairman
LLOYD C. MACPHERSON

Hon. Secretary
A. F. MACPHERSON, W.S., 16 Castle Street, Edinburgh,2.

Hon. Deputy Secretary
Capt., the Chevalier J. HARVEY MACPHERSON, K.L.J.,
Clan Macpherson House, Newtonmore

Hon. Treasurer
KENNETH N. MCPHERSON, C.A., 62 Strathearn Road, Edinburgh 9.

Address of Clan Annual
The Editor of Creag Dhubh, Clan House & Museum, Newtonmore, Inverness-shire

Registrar
Miss CHRISTINE MACPHERSON, M.A., West High Street, Kingussie

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Branch Representatives
                       

BADENOCHEx-Provost EVAN CATTANACH, Kingussie
Chevr. J. H. MACPHERSON, Dunmore., Newtonmore
NORTH OF SCOTLAND DUNCAN MACPHERSON, 66B Bruce Gardens, Inverness
ALASTAIR W. MACPHERSON, The Park, Lhanbryde, Morayshire
EAST OF SCOTLANDBailie HUGH MACPHERSON, O.L.J. F.S.A. (SCOT)
Balnagarrow, Glebe Road, Cramond, Midlothian
ROBERT MACPHERSON, M.B.E. 41 Dovecot Road, Corstorphine, Edinburgh, 12.
WEST OF SCOTLAND HAMISH MACPHERSON, 1356 Pollokshaws Road, Glasgow, S.1
EWEN MACPHERSON, 39 Dalcruin St, Glasgo3w, N.W.
ENGLAND & WALESSir JOHN MACPHERSON, G.C.M.G., 141 Marsham Court, Westminster, London SW 1
IAN D. MACPHERSON, Glencoe, Sunnydale, Farnborough Park, Kent
CANADALt.-Col. CLUNY MACPHERSON, C.M.G., M.D., St John's, Newfoundland
LLOYD C. MACPHERSON, BSC, MS. IN ED., St Andrew's College, Aurora, Ont
SOUTHLAND, N.Z. E.M. MACPHERSON, 64 Louisa Street, Invercargill
U.S.A. Vacant

_______________

Curator. Capt. J. MACDONALD, O.B.E. Clan House, Newtonmore
Senior PiperANGUS MACPHERSON, Inveran, Sutherland
Junior Piper DONALD MACPHERSON, Alexandria, Dunbartonshire
Hon. AuditorJAMES K. MCMURDO,
8 Featherhall Grove, Corstorphine, Edinburgh

_______________

CONTRIBUTIONS

      The Council appeals to members to support the Annual by contributing articles of historical, genealogical, or topographical interest, and by forwarding news of themselves and other clanmen, honours, appointments, etc. Photographs, prints, etc., of places or people and 'Letters to the Editor' on matters of Clan interst are also welcome. All communications should be addressed to the Editor at Clan Macpherson House, Newtonmore, Inverness-shire.

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EDITORIAL

      The recovery of some fifty letters, originating from the Cluny Charter Chest, is a matter of historic note and this not only from the Clan point of view but also because of their great value to all historians. An account of their discovery and purchase for the Clan Association is given in these pages, and the warmest gratitude of all Macphersons goes to those Members of the England and Wales Branch who organised and supported their successful purchase. The letters are being carefully scrutinised by Clan historians and will form the subject of articles for many years to come. In this connection, too, it may not be amiss to remind Members of the Clan that there is a considerable store of material from the Charter Chest preserved in Register House in Edinburgh. The most important part of these has been examined and reported upon in earlier numbers of " Creag Dhubh " by the Hon. Secretary and by Alan G. Macpherson. Any Member wishing to do more research should get in touch with the Hon. Secretary who will be very glad to advise him.

      This year has been one of great encouragement to us in many ways. A number of people have been kind enough to write in to express appreciation of our first editorial attempts and one Member, in Canada, underlined her appreciation with a most generous donation to the Clan funds. Nobody has given any adverse criticism, other than on. a few minor points, and this too has served for encouragement. What has been especially cheering has been the number of new contributors to Creag Dhubh whose names appear this year for the first time, and at the risk of appearing to make distinctions, mention must be made of the most scholarly article which Patricia Goodfellow has sent us concerning the correspondence between Cluny and Dundee. Miss Goodfellow is still at school and if her level of scholarship is in any way typical of the results of Scottish education one feels that there is a very wonderful generation arising in the homeland. Further encouragement has been given, too, in the favourable reviews of Creag Dhubh that have appeared in the press and also in the number of publishers who consider our opinions of value and who have sent books and gramophone records, dealing with Scotland, Scots and Scottish affairs, for review. Our thanks goes to all of them.

      An article of particular interest is that which has come to us from Monsieur Chevallier who visited the Clan House in 1962. He sets a most absorbing problem regarding identity and any theories as to Lady Jeanne McPherson will be welcomed.

      One innovation in this number of Creag Dhubh is introduced in response to the suggestion, made by a surprising number of correspondents, that we include articles of specifically Highland interest to appeal not only to our own Members but to Scotsmen of all Clans everywhere. We are therefore printing something on Gaelic and on Gaelic verse in this year's journal and will take the subject further if this essay meets with favour. Equally, of course, it will be dropped if it is felt that such work goes outwith our brief.

      A final note of thanks must be given to the Branch Secretaries who have, most of them, sent in their news at an early date and have made the work of editing so much easier by their kindness in so doing.

      And a last appeal -- as we said last year, this is your Journal and we need you to give it life. Please write -even if it is no more than a personal letter to the Editor to give your opinions for better or worse!

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Advertisements

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Advertisements

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THE CLUNY CHARTER CHEST LETTERS

      During the last year the England and Wales Branch was successful in purchasing about fifty letters from part of the Cluny Charter Chest which was given by Cluny to the late Grant Francis of Edinburgh in 1927.

      A son-in-law of Lady Ley, the Tanistair's sister, saw in an antique shop in Godalming a framed letter from Prince Charles Edward to Cluny of the '45' asking him to disburse various sums of money to the Chiefs who had helped him in his campaign. The photostat of this letter together with the relevant receipts are now in the Clan Museum. As a result of this discovery "J.E." and "R.W.G." visited the owner of these documents, Mrs. Grant Young, who is the daughter of the late Grant Francis, author of the "Romance of the White Rose" and "The Scottish Royal Line". She was pleased to allow us to purchase these documents, which we have now done.

      The England and Wales Branch are very grateful for the contributions received towards this historic purchase.

      A list of subscribers and the contents of the two wallets are as follows:

Mrs. Baker J. E. Macpherson
H. R. Muir BeddallThe Hon. Gordon Macpherson
Mrs. Craig J. McPherson
Lord Drumalbyn of Whitesands Sir John Macpherson
Mrs. Hodgkinson J. P. Macpherson
Lady Ley Mrs. M. G. Macpherson
Sir Denys Lowson, Bt. Miss Olive Macpherson
Brigadier A. B. McPherson R. T. S. Macpherson
Miss Anne Macpherson R. W. G. Macpherson
His Honour the Deemster Macpherson Lord Macpherson of Drumochter
Donald Macpherson W. A. Macpherson
L. C. F. Macpherson J. Macpherson Martin
F. Cameron Macpherson Mrs. E. Gerard Pearse
Frederick Macpherson The Hon. Mrs. Peter Runge
G. P. S. Macpherson R. Gillespie Smith
Ian A. Macpherson Col. J. D. Sturrock
J. C. Macpherson The Exors. of Mrs. M. C. Sturrock
Major J. A. R. Wise

List of the CLUNY CHARTER CHEST LETTERS given to the late Grant Francis
by Albert Macpherson of Cluny in 1927

LETTERS TO CLUNY
1. From the Duke of Atholl offering a commission 1.10.1667, signed "Atholl".
2. From Lochiel dated Achnicarry 30.6.1744, signed "Donald Cameron".
3. From Robertson of Strowan, dated 15.3.1746.
4. Another from the same, dated Charleville 29.8.1763.
5. From Lord Lovat, dated Beaufort 20.12.1739, signed "Lovat".
6. From Lord Lovat, dated Beaufort 1.3.1742, signed "Lovat".
7. From Lord Lovat, dated Beaufort 22.4.1743, signed "Lovat".
8. From the Duke of Perth, dated Drummond 6.6.1738, signed "Perth".
9. From Lord George Murray, dated Blair Castle 15.10.1739.
10. From the Duke of Gordon, dated Gordon Castle 20.11.1743, signed "Gordon".
11. From the Duke of Atholl dated Dunkeld 21.9.1745, signed "Atholl".
12. From the Earl of Moray, dated Donibristle 11.6.1742.
13. From Duncan Forbes of Culloden advising him not to join the Prince, dated Culloden 20.8.----, signed "Duncan Forbes".

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14. From Mr. William Murray, Secretary to the Prince, suggesting his going at once to France.
15. From Alexander Grant, dated 24.8.1705.

OTHER LETTERS AND DOCUMENTS
15a. Cluny's description of the skirmish at Clifton.
16. Petition of Ewen Macpherson of Cluny, Ygr., re cattle.
17. Petition of Ewen Macpherson of Cluny, Ygr., re horses, dated Ruthven 29.8.1744.
18. Letter to Major John Macpherson at Cluny, dated Dunkerque 31.-.1764., signed "Lachlan Mackintosh".
19. Letter to the Hon'ble the Lady Clunie, dated Edinburgh 20.9.1764, signed "Will Fraser".
20. Letter to Archibald Campbell Fraser, Esq., at the British Coffee House, London,
signed "David Gregorie", dated Dunkerque 24.5.1764
21. Contemporary copy of a letter to William Fraser, Esq., of Balmain, dated London 16.4.1764 regarding the education of Duncan, his nephew.
22. Discharge by the Duke of Gordon of Lachlan Macpherson of Nuid -- two thousand marks 1.7.1726, signed "Gordon".
23. Promise to pay to Robert Gordon of Hallhead the sum of five louis d'or 4.9.1768, signed "Macpherson of Cluny".
24. Copy of letter dated Dalwhinnie 30.8.1745, from Cluny describing his waiting upon General Cope.
25. Bond of Friendship -- "We Simon Fraser of Lovat and Simon Master of Lovat".
26. Letter to the Duc de Choiseul with translation.
27. Petition to Queen Anne.
28. Letters from the Sobieski Stuarts.
29. The French gold buried on the shore of Loch Arkaig. Eight letters from "Win. Roberts" and Grant Francis's notes.
Letters from Albert C. Macpherson of Cluny and his Lady confirming the gift of the Charter Chest
Letters to Grant Francis.
About fifty letters in all.
____________________

A TRUST FAITHFULLY CARRIED OUT
PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD AND CLUNY OF THE '45

      It has been charged against Prince Charles Edward by some historians that after Culloden he did little to help the clansmen who had fought for him and suffered in consequence.

      In the recently re-discovered Cluny Charter Chest Letters is evidence that at the earliest possible moment he did everything he could to help them. As soon as he got on board the French ship which was to carry him to safety, he borrowed every penny he could raise from the officers and other gentlemen on board, and managed to collect �0, then worth probably at least twenty times its nominal equivalent today.

Such was his trust in Cluny that he immediately confided the whole sum to his care, with instructions how it should be distributed and receipts taken, as is shown by the photostat of his letter given on the next page.

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For the Glengarry men, to be paid to Lochgarry's Brother
      one hundred and fifty pounds
150
For the Maegregors and Stewarts a hundred pounds apiece 100
For Lochiel's Clan three hundred pounds 300
For Keppoch's Lady a hundred pounds 100
      and for your disposal a hundred pounds 100
All this to be given upon their receipts which you will keep.
Charles P.R.
For Cluny Macpherson.                                         Total 750 Pound

[Can you find the error in Prince Charlie's arithmatic?
If not, you'll find the answer at the end of the article on Page 8.]

      Cluny faithfully carried out his instructions, as is shown by the receipts also found with the Charter Chest Letters. The receipt for the largest item reads as follows: "I Angus Cameron in Downan Brother German to Glenneves grant me to have received from Ewen McPherson of Cluny three hundred pounds Sterling as the proportion of the money left by his Highness P.R. for the immediate Subsistance of Locheil's Regiment by virtue of his own order to Cluny writ on Board the Ship for France -- which sum I promise will hold Count in witness wherof I have writen and subscrived these presents at Stronacardoch this sixth day of October 1746 by Angus Cameron." The other receipts take the same general form, specifying in each case that the money is a proportion of that left by His Royal Highness the Prince Regent with Cluny, when on board ship for France. "Angus McDonell of Grenfield Brother german to Lochgarry" acknowledges receipt of one hundred and fifty pounds "for the present and immediate subsistance of the Glengarry regiment". Angus Cameron further acknowledges the receipt of one hundred pounds for the immediate subsistance of Glenguile's Regiment, apparently the Macgregors and Stewarts referred to above. Finally, "Janet Stewart lady Keppoch", widow of the gallant Macdonald of Keppoch, who met such a tragic

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death at Culloden, acknowledges one hundred pounds "left with you as a gratuity to, be given me." by virtue of his Royal Highness's order.

      There are other receipts amounting to E325 dated 6th and 1 Ith August 1747, nearly a year later. They may refer to the French gold which arrived too late to be of service in the campaign and. was buried on the shores of Loch Arkaig. It also was entrusted to Cluny for distribution and a number of letters, which may throw fresh light on this controversial subject, are now in our possession, to be reported on in due course.
                                                                                                                                                   J. E. M.

[ "For the Maegregors and Stewarts a hundred pounds apiece       100."
Doesn't that really amount to �0? I wonder how Cluny managed to resolve this shortage ?

The Prince's error is easily understood. As indicated above, he wrote this letter on board the ship that was take him back to France after he had spent several months wandering around the Highlands or sailing over the seas looking for a way back. I expect the French captain was saying "Vit, vit!" while the Prince was writing, not relishing combat with the Royal Navy ships that were prowling the Hebrides looking for the Prince.]

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CLUNY AND DUNDEE
by PATRICIA GOODFELLOW

      The winter of 1688-9 was hard, but even though the Highlands were snowbound a series of messengers were about to make their way through to Cluny, bringing disturbing news of William of Orange's invasion; of the flight of King James VII, of the Convention summoned to Edinburgh on 14th March, and of the triumph of the Whigs.

      In the main the Clans were loyal to the Stuarts and Sir Ewan Dubh Cameron of Lochiel, that veteran of Highland politics, lost no time in acting. News of this was brought to the most prominent of the King's supporters, John Grahame of Claverhouse, who had recently been created Viscount Dundee. Dundee had left Edinburgh together with others of the loyalists and was at Dunblane where he was found by Drummond of Balhaldy, Lochiel's grandson and biographer, who reported that he had "told him of the confederacy of the Clans. . . . These agreable news confirmed him in his designs. He marched home to Dudhope, and though there was a Lyon Herald sent after him, ordering him to return under pain of high treason, yet he excused himself." This Dundee did in a letter to the Lords of Convention saying, 'I hope the Meeting of States will think it unreasonable I should leave my wife in the condition she is in . . . . I beg favour of a delay till she is brought to bed; and I will either give security, or paroll, not to disturb the peace'.       The Convention promptly replied by outlawing Dundee and, thus freed, he raised the, Royal Standard on Dundee Law on 16th April. At once General Mackay of Scourie, newly arrived from Holland and, in his own words, 'very indisposed, not being recovered of a great sicknese sit off with three regiments of the Scots Brigade to capture him.' But Dundee had forestalled him and had galloped north with a half-troop of horse. Mackay, on arrival, found only Lady Jeane, by now delivered of her first child, James. She gave him such a reception that he was glad to go off in pursuit of Dundee who, on the 25th, was already in 'Forres where he received news from his wife that the troops left to

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garrison the city of Dundee would defect to him if helped. He dashed southwards; on 29th April he played a cat-and-mouse game with Mackay at Cairn o' Mount, and then veered north again whilst his pursuer frantically bribed the inhabitants for information.

      At Gordon Castle Dundee was joined by Lord Dunfermline with forty horse and he arrived in Inverness on 1st May. Ranald Macdonell of Keppoch, with eight hundred men, had been sent there to act as an escort but that freebooting chieftain had spent his time of waiting in immuring the Orange-inclined citizens and, meanwhile, was busily engaged in extorting money from them to further his own private feud with the Mackintoshes. Typically the soul of tact, 'Dundee mildly composed all their Disputes and shewed himself so generous a Peacemaker that he gave his Bond for the Money'. However, although 'he sent friendly for Mackintosh', he could not reconcile him with Keppoch and the latter returned home with his loot, leaving Dundee's tiny force stranded. Mackay, already refreshed at Elgin, sent an order to Cluny to obey 'the Laird of Graunt's perticullar warrant' and warned him to be 'answerable vpon your highest peril for all things that shall fall out contrarie to the interest of the service by your non-concurrence and disobedience'. [The Cluny of this time was Duncan #16.]

      On 8th May, Dundee marched down Glen Mor to Cille Chumein (now Fort Augustus). At daybreak, he crossed the snow-swept Corrieyarrick, forded the Spey opposite Cluny and spent the night with Calum Macpherson who was the Duke of Gordon's forester near Dalwhinnie. Thence he embarked on a lightning campaign, in the course of which he raided Perth, captured an entire regiment of newly-raised horse and, in the name of King James, took possession of all the taxes raised for King William. A few days later, after a brief visit to his family, he was again on the march for Lochaber. He crossed the Moor of Rannoch, treacherous at any time but now suicidal with thaw and blinding sleet. Horses fell into frozen bogs and had to be shot, the men had to continue on foot. They could not complain -- Dundee himself took all the night watches. On May 17th they crossed a spur of Ben Nevis in time to meet the appointed day for the gathering of the Clans, who assembled on the 18th. He reported, 'Captain of Glenrannald (Clanranald) is near us these severall dayes; the Laird of Barro (MacNeill of Barra) is here with his men. I am persuaded Sir Donald (of Sleat) is there by this. McLean (of Lochbuy) lands in Morven to morrow certainly. (Stewart of) Apen, (Macdonald of) Glenco, Lochell, (Macdonald of) Largo, are all raidy. Sir Alexr. (MacLean of Otter) and (Macdonald of) Largo have been here with there men all this while with me'.

      Amidst all this, Dundee still found time to write long and lucid (though wonderfully spelled!) letters to 'all that have not already joyned Major Gen. Mackay, on this said Tay, who have any comand of men'. Amongst these letters was one to Cluny, to whom he wrote on 19th May: 'I hear M G McKay has been by threats and promises indevoring to engadge you in his rebellion against our Lauful Suverain King James, but I knou your constant Loyalty your honor and your conscience will

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secur you against such proposalls . . . I will not desyr you to apear in armes untill such time as you see us in body able to preserve you which I hop in God you shall in a feu days see. There is one thing I forwarn you of not to be alarumed with the danger they would make the world believe the protestant religion is in. They must make religion the pretext as it has been in all times of rebellion. I am as much concerned in it as any man, and will doe my indevors to see it secured'.

      Cluny was thus put in a cleft stick and his position was further complicated, a few days later, by yet another letter, this time from Mackay who also used religious arguments: 'I cannot beleeve you so much an ennemy to your eternall and temporall happyness, as to joyn with a compnie of papists (or wors than papists such as sacrifise all that ought to be of value to men of raison and pietie, which consists in the Maintenance of Religion and liberty) to labour to overturn the begun deliverance which God hath in his mercy wrought thus far for vs'.

      Cluny thought it best for the good of the Clan to avoid becoming involved. Some of the Clan, though, thought otherwise for, on 27th May when Dundee chased Mackay down Strathspey, they joined his forces. It was on this march that Keppoch burned down old Ruthven Castle after Dundee had let Mackay's garrison go free. Keppoch, at the same time, had his final revenge on the fence-sitting Mackintosh for he burned Dunachton Castle behind Dundee's back. It is assumed that these Macphersons returned home when Dundee passed, pursued by Mackay, on his way back to Lochaber. From the most honourable of motives Cluny, meanwhile, decided that the interests of his Clan came before the quarrels of his King and he continued to ignore all approaches from both sides.

      Dundee seems to have understood Cluny's attitude for, in his next letter (July 14th) he gives all the news and then adds, 'this I wryt to you to be communicat to all the gentrey of Badenoch, so call them togither for from the head to the foot I will spair non that Joyns not. The gentrey must march themselves, and I expect 400 men and no expenses will be allowed. McIntosh, Grants, and all must come out'. Cluny, ever prudent, ignored this letter too. Again Dundee wrote, on the 18th, giving more news, 'the french fleet having bate the dutch and keeped the inglish in . . the parlements of ingland and Scotland are all by the ears amongst themselves . . . I expect you will have all your contrey in armes on munday, and I shall send you word where to Joyn us. Nobody offers to sit my sumonds so I expect that you will not'. Then, losing some of his monumental patience, he assumes the highhanded attitude befitting a Lieutenant-General and adds, 'This I desyr you will communicat to the rest of the gentrey of the contrey and befor Sundays night. Lait me have your positive answer in wryt not by proxie and that signed or I will not notice it'.

      This letter Cluny ignored once again. Dundee patiently sent him 'a copie of the Kings instructions ' and told him, 'You will see thereby hou you oght to walk', remarking that he could have his army when he whistled for it, 'I can be tuyce as strong as ever when I please'. He

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also seeks intelligence saying, 'I expect to hear from you what M G Mackay is lyk to doe . . . Any word you have a mynd to send me you may cause delyver it to Alex. Mcdonald who keep gaird in Glenroy'. By the 20th, however, Dundee had received no word from Cluny and realised that neither explanation nor coaxing was having any effect. He took then to warning Cluny and, letting him see some of his wellchecked mettle, wrote, 'I am ready to assist all honest men. It is nou no more time to look on when all your nighbours are ingadged, I asseur you it will prove your uter ruin if you doe; so you will doe well to drawe to armes or be looked on as rebelles. If you sit this sumonds you shall not often be troubled with mor letters from me so I desyr a positive answer and I requyr you to call the contrey and intimat this to them'. But, even then, his pawky sense of huniour prevailed and he added, 'Schomberg has refused to head the P of Orange armey for fear of loosing his honor with new troops that will run for it'.

      On 22nd July, Dundee wrote again, politely, to Cluny and began his letter with typical irony, 'Sir -- Our people coming from this contrey which doeth not abound in provisions will want meat when they come into Badinoch. I am unwilling that they should go loose in your countrey (to seek provisions as they did last) for fear of ruining it, wherefore I send you this advertisment that you may cause provisions come in again to morous night near to the place of Clunie, for fiveteen hunder men for two dayes. The rest of our men are provided. If yow faill in this lett the blaim. of all the dissorders that shall be comitted be upon you. These who bring in the provisions shall be fully satisfyed for them. I expect that the countrey will be raidy in armes to join us seeing Marr and Atholl are immediatly to do it, and I may say all benorth Tay and a good part besouth, so nou is the time if ever, for to show yourselves loyall men. I pray you force me not, to do things to yow, against my inclination. -- I am Sir Your assured freend and humble servant Dundie. -- In answer to yours yow and your friends are to meet me to morous night (without faill) at Garva. Sir, bak these letters and send them to the most considerable of the gentrey of Badenoch'.

      Dundee, nicknamed 'An Greumach, the man of excellent nature' was very evidently worried lest his Highlanders should give way to their love of plunder. Mackay was not so troubled, for he wrote to Cluny ordering him to get 200 cows and 600 sheep to 'Rivan in Badenough ... if yow faill in this I assure yow I will turne the armey loose upon the country, who will not spaire neither houses nor comes. Take this advertisement'.

      On the following evening Dundee with his army, 1,800 strong, waded across the Spey to confer with Cluny at Garva. 'Cleabhers, youthful, active, urbane' seems to have made an impression on the Chief who, from that day onwar ds, was a dedicated icate Jacobite. Dundee decided there was no need for the Macphersons to join him then, as long as they were ready at call. At Breakachie he signed a bond to Cluny for 659 merks (�9 6s. 8d.). Then 'by the hills of Druim Uachdar came

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fort the gentry . . . When we reached Atholl we were favoured only with women -- men kept out of our way'. From Blair Castle, late on the night of the 26th, Dundee put pen to paper to write to Cluny for the last time and to tell him of the latest events.

      At daybreak on the 27th July, Mackay was very near and very vulnerable as he threaded his way by the Pass of Killiecrankie. Dundee led his men behind Lude Hill. At lunch-time the mystified Mackay emerged and Dundee left him alone whilst he drew up his 3,500 men in a long thin line. Then text-book tactics were thrown to the wind.

      The ensuing battle is commemorated in Gaelic verse by Iain Lom and Angus Mac Alasdair Roy. 'There stopped on the incline above the shadow of the thickets those who quickly put the unrighteous ones to flight'. 'The Gaels let fall their plaids above the gate of Raon-Ruairidh'. 'Began our smiting at the bowing of the sun ... when poured forth your gallants, no swarm of cow-herds they, but those who could strike blows spiritedly ... right defiant our sparring, though strong their hopes they lost their ground and their souls after'. 'The kail and pottage folk, all whom Mackay had, in flight! ... many a plaidless Gael pursuing a Red-coat'. 'Many a comely young gallant, without a handful of flesh on him, would cleave skulls, marrow and sinews ... not of tow, but of flax your raiment ... (the enemy) got an onset in the wood from the hard blades of Conn's seed which sent you pell-mell and heavily wounded over the hill ... Heroic Cleibhers of the horses, my utter ruination what befell you at the beginning of the contest. Flame of fire to them your anger ... great was the slaughter of your hands under a white helmet, and your body, lightly clad and fair, was without accoutrement ... the bullet pierced you under the folds of your clothes'.

      Cluny must have arrived too late even for the burial of 'Dark John of the Battles', to find 'in Raon-Ruairi of the clumps many a grave and stiff corpse, a thousand shovels and spades levelling them down' and the army 'under sorrow, though we had chased them'.

      Colonel Cannon took command and, three weeks later -- let the bard Angus tell it -- 'It was never their custom to stand in the shelter of a wall, as was done at Dunkeld. The heroes fell, and this is wretched that they should fall by lead, seeing that cow-herds could shoot it. The day of Dunchaillein told that Cleabhers was dead'. Cluny and the Clan were there.

      It was a similar story at Cromdale on 1st May 1690, when the remnants were taken by surprise and when, in spite of bungling leadership, the Macphersons present battled with their usual gallantry. Cluny and his Clan, devoted and selfless, suffered much for the Cause, but all in vain. It was lost. Iain Lom gives his reasons for it, reasons with which none can disagree, when he says, addressing King James, 'But if you do not come on the spot now that your trusted men are lost, you might as well be in Egypt', and, addressing "Dundithe the Good", he says, 'There had been no enemy up between Orkney and Tweed were it not for the stitch-like pain that pierced you in front'.

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Facsimile of Dundee's autograph letter to Cluny, dated from Blair Castle, 26th July, 1689 -- the evening before the Battle of Killiecrankie -- and addressed -- "For the Laird of Clunie in Baddnoch"

                                                                                                                              Blair Castle July 26

      Sir -- my Lord Muray is retyred doun the contrey. all the Atholl men have left them saive, Stratherel, Achintully and Baron Read (of) Straloch and they will not byd my doun coming to morou. the rest of the heritors will be here to morou. they will Joyn us and I supose to morou you will have ane answer. so if you have a mynd to preserve your self and to serve the king be in armes to morou that when the letter comes you may be here in a day. all the world will be with us blissed be God. -- I am Sir your most humble -- servant -- Dundie -- my service to all the loyall gentrey of Baddnoch.

line 1: Lord Muray -- son of the Marquis of Athol. He had declared for William.
line 5: Stratherel --
line 6: Achintully -- Spalding of Ashintully, Athol.
line 6: Baron Read Straloch -- Leonard Robertson of Straloch. Rua or Reid was a patronymic sometimes used amongst the Robertsons. Dundee had written a former letter to this man, but it had obviously had no effect!

      It may be noted that Dundee's letters were usually a good deal neater than this one -- though his spelling was always unpredictable! It may well be that he wrote this at a time when he was extremely weary after his four-day march from Lochaber.

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LAND TENURE IN THE ANCIENT HIGHLANDS

      The Clan Macpherson Association represents the ancient corporate body of the Clan itself, and we are, possibly, unique amongst modern Clans in owning, as a body, a piece of our ancient Clan territory on the slopes of Creag Dhubh.

      Clansmen and others, in speaking of this, have often observed that it is no more than a first step towards the ancient system of land tenure under which a Clan lived freely in its own territory, each man having equal rights with his neighbour. It has been maintained that the horrors of the Clearances were due to this fact being over-ruled by the introduction of southern customs of which decadent Chiefs took advantage to claim rights which he had never before possessed to be complete owner of lands which had, formerly, been owned by the corporate body of the Clan. In fact this is not correct.

      From very early times the land under a Chief's rule was divided and sub-divided amongst many tacksmen, who were "superior tenants", each paying an annual rental to the Chief. The tacksmen, in turn, divided their tacks amongst sub-tenants who paid him for their tenancy either in cash, in kind or in labour. This system was admirably suited to the primitive community of the ancient Highlands, but it broke down as more modern methods of trade and agriculture began to filter through into the hills. The Chiefs then found the need for money more pressing and were quickly alive to the fact that the small rents that they, themselves, received from the tacksmen were considerably less than the rents that the tacksmen obtained from the sub-division of their tacks. The Chiefs thereupon raised the tacksmens' rents, and the tacksmen, in their turn, 'Put the screw on' their own tenants. So the vicious cycle was begun, leading ultimately to the disgrace of the Clearances when Chiefs paid all attention to their financial responsibilities to themselves and their families and, at the same time, forgot their moral responsibilities towards their Clansmen.

      Notwithstanding all that has been said to the contrary, the old Highland proprietor took very good care to have written titles to his land and many of these are still in existence dating back as far as the 12th century, and they show that the land-ownership was vested in the title holders absolutely, and not in trust for the people. The proprietor granted leases of his lands, he collected his rents and he evicted such tenants As did not fulfil their obligations to him.

      Examples of this are not a few. In 1642 Alexander Macrae held lands and sheilings in Kintail for which he was bound to pay to the landlord "or to his factors in his name, having his power" the sum of forty pounds of rent, and was also obliged to deliver yearly to the laird "ane sufficient white plaid", three stones of butter, twelve cheeses, a fat kid, a fat calf, and one mutton or good sheep. No mean rental, this!

      Evictions for non-payment of rent in the Highlands go back far before the nineteenth century and the Clearances. A warrant of removal still existing shows that Sir Rory Mackenzie of Findon and Sir Alexander Mackenzie of Coul evicted nineteen tenants for arrears of rental in 1688.

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      That evictions were not taken for granted by the sufferers, but were bitterly and often forcibly resented is shown by many records. In 1692 John MacWilliam Vick Neill, in Wester Knockfin, was fined ten pounds Scots for deforcing an officer who attempted to poind his sheep for arrears of rent. Whilst, coming nearer to home, we read seven years later a "vindication" which was addressed to the Duke of Gordon from his feuars and tenants in Badenoch, in which they made a most bitter complaint against his factor, William Mackintosh of Borlum, whom they accused of having reported "one of the most wicked, malicious and notorious lies that his serpentine wit could invent, or the Devil could indite," going on to maintain that this lie "was never hatched or contrived without the concourse and inspiration of the father and author of lies". Our forefathers were certainly not mealy-mouthed!

      We should not allow ourselves to be deceived. Land-ownership by individuals has existed in the Highlands from early days. Tenancies, the payment of rents and evictions for failure in obligations were not a phenomenon arising suddenly as new ideas and new methods came into the Highlands from the south. There were, of course, great and widespread changes under the urge of economic pressure which bore upon the Chiefs who visited it upon the tacksmen who, virtually in a generation, disappeared from the scene. The changes, however, were not in the system of land-ownership by the Chiefs, but lay in a new notion which the Chiefs took of their responsibilities towards their Clansmen. This notion, substituting a feudal and overbearing domination for the former easy and paternal relationships, can only be attributed to the influence of English ideas, coming from a country where subserviance and unquestioning obedience to a feudal overlord were -- and to a great extent still are -- engrained in the national character.

      The new relationship between Chief and Clansman was the deciding factor leading to the Clearances. That the change in relationships was complete in the majority of cases is shown in the terms of the Badenoch vindication which has just been quoted. This could hardly have been made if Borlum had been no more than an early Sellar, engaged in carrying out abominations at the express wish of his master.

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CLANSMEN IN THE BLACK WATCH MUTINY, 1743
      Shortly after the last issue of Creag Dhubh had gone to press, the writer's attention was drawn to an account of the two Macpherson Corporals who were executed by a firing squad after having taken a gallant, though possibly misguided part in the mutiny of the Black Watch in 1743 as described in the article in this Journal.

      A summary of the characters and the careers of Samuel and Malcolm Macpherson was written by Mr. Campbell, the Minister of Laggan. This is of considerable interest and is given in full hereunder. Readers

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will note that, from what Mr. Campbell says, the two men were not, apparently, brothers -- though various accounts of the Mutiny state that they were so related.

      "Samuel McPherson, aged about 28 years, unmarried, was born in the parish of Laggan in Badenoch and shire of Inverness; his father, stiff living, is brother to McPherson of Breakachy, a gentleman of considerable estate in that country, and is himself a man of unblemished reputation, and a plentiful fortune. Samuel was the only son of a first marriage, and received a genteel education, having made some progress in the languages, and studied for some time in Edinburgh with a writer (that is, an attorney), until about six years ago; he enlisted as a volunteer in Major Grant's company, where he was much respected both by the officers and private men, and was in a short time made a corporal.

      "Malcolm McPherson, aged about 30 years and unmarried, was likewise born in the same parish of Laggan, was son of Angus McPherson of Driminard, a gentleman of credit and repute, who bestowed upon Malcolm such education as that part of the country would afford. He enlisted about seven years ago in my Lord Lovat's company, where his behaviour recommended him to the esteem of his officers, and was soon made a corporal."

      In a nominal roll of the soldiers engaged in the Mutiny, the following names of Macphersons are recorded:

Corporal Samuel Macpherson Alexander Macpherson, snr.
Corporal Malcolm Macpherson Alexander Macpherson, jnr.
Angus Macpherson of Laggan Angus Macpherson, snr.
Donald Macpherson
Angus Macpherson, jnr.
(Second of same name) James Macpherson
Evan Macpherson John Macpherson
Kenneth Macpherson(Second of same name)
Paul Macpherson (Second of same name)

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WHO WAS LADY JEANNE MACPHERSON?
by MONS. J. CHEVALLIER (Vend/o\me)

      EDITORIAL NOTE -- When M. Chevallier sent this account of his most interesting discovery in the French archives, he thought that the subject must be Lady (Janet Fraser) Macpherson" of the Forty-Five". The matter was referred to Alan G. Macpherson, in Canada for his comments, as there seemed to be some marked and inexplicable discrepancies in dates if she was indeed the widow of Cluny of the Forty-Five. His observations show quite conclusively that she was, in fact someone else, for he says:
      i. Janet Fraser, Lady Cluny, died quite certainly at the Mains of Clunie in April 1765, having returned to Badenoch with the Macphersons of Benchar and Breakachie a year earlier.
      ii. Cluny did not die in Scotland, as these documents show, but at Dunkirk. His death, too, took place in 1764 and not in 1746 or 1747.
      iii. Dame Jeanne de McPherson was born about 1728, whereas Janet Fraser married Ewan of Cluny in 1742. Simon Fraser was a queer fellow, but not so queer as that!
      iv. Janet Fraser joined her husband in France in May 1757 and was not previously in that country.

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      These observations would appear to indicate quite clearly that Dame Jeanne de McPherson and Lady Janet (or Jean) Fraser Macpherson of Cluny cannot possibly be the same person. We are, therefore, faced with a most intriguing problem. Who was Dame Jeanne and, above all, who was the Sieur de McPherson, her husband? One suggestion is that he might have been William the Purser, ancestor of the Blairgowries, who was the only leading man of the Clan to be killed in the FortyFive -- he was killed at Falkirk in January, 1746. But his wife's name was Anna. It is unfortunate that the photostat of the records, given by the French authorities to our contributor, are too smudged to allow reproduction here. The full text of the French (insofar as it is legible) is, however, given with an English translation.

      The whole thing presents a most delightful puzzle. Can anyone find a solution to it?

* * *

      After the Forty-Five a few Scottish families together with their servants and retainers, numbering about a score all told, took refuge in the small town of Sancerre on the left bank of the Loire, about thirty miles from Bourges. This latter town is the capital of the old province of Berri (now Cher Department) which has a long connection with Scotland, dating back to the Hundred Years War.

       The most important of this group of refugees was Lord John Nairne, a Scottish peer, who may well have chosen Sancerre in which to live on the advice of Louis Hector Drummond, Comte de Welford (born 1722) who was a General in the French service. This officer was a cousin twice removed of Lord John Drummond who accompanied Lord Nairne on his journey to France, where he had received a commission from the King in the Regiment of the "Royal Ecossais". His own father, Andrew, had married a local heiress in 1721 and, through his wife, was the owner of the estates of Ivoy-le-Pr/e, near Sancerre, where he had numerous friends among the gentry.

      Another possible reason for choosing Sancerre was the fact that there was a strong Protestant tradition still alive in that district and a considerable amount of religious tolerance prevailed there. Furthermore the cost of living was particularly low in that part of France, and this was an important consideration for people whose estates had been confiscated and who were obliged to live on the bounty of the French King or else upon the meagre salaries of officers in the French army.

      Lord Nairne and his wife, Catherine Murray, had been living in the utmost poverty in the neighbourhood of Paris, and they moved to Sancerre in 1752. They were accompanied then, or followed shortly afterwards, by Lady Jeanne Macpherson who was the widow of the Sieur de Macpherson. She acted as lady-in-waiting to Lady Nairne until the latter died in Paris in 1754. Lady Jeanne Macpherson died of "a putrid fever" according to her death certificate, which is still in existence and which is appended to this article. This fever, so certified by the doctors of the time, may well have been typhoid.

      Little is known about the daily life of this group of Scots expatriates who, for financial reasons, kept very much to themselves. It is clear, though, that their loyalty to their Cause and their conduct in adversity won them the respect of all classes in the country of their adoption.

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This respect was marked by the fact that the Bailli himself, the King's personal representative in the town, went in person to Lord Nairne's house to have the death of Lady Macpherson recorded by his clerk and a notary, as is shown in the certificate.

       No record exists of Lady Macpherson's grave, but it is worth mentioning that Lord Nairne had bought a plot of land called "Le Jardin de la Loge" just outside the town, to be maintained in the Scottish tradition as a lair for his family and close friends. We know that this plot was still tended with great care by his son until the end of the century. This son, Henry, had been one of the signatories to Lady Macpherson's death certificate.

       When development of the site took place, in 1893, three coffins were found and removed. According to local records there must have been a further four graves there, probably including that of Lady Macpherson. These, however, have not been located.

       NOTE: In the collection of material for this article, the writer is greatly indebted to M. Jean-Yves Ribault, Directeur des Services d'Archives Departmentales du Cher et de IAncienne Province de Berri, Bourges.

French Text of Death Certificate
Transcript from Les Archives Municipales de Sancerre. Etat-Civil des protestants. 1741-1752.

An/ee 1766, acte 98
15 f/evrier 1766. Dame Jeanne de Mcpherson.
       Aujourd'huy, samedy quinze f/evrier mil sept cent soixante six, heure de sept de rellev/e, nous, Francois-Marie Desbans, avocat en Parlement et Bailly des ville et comt/e de Sancerre, avec Me Etienne Perrinet de Lassay, procureur fiscal, et de Claude Germain, notre greffier ordinaire, /a la r/equisition de haut et puissant Seigneur Mylord Jean Nairne, comte de Nerne, Pere (sic) d'Ecosse, demeurant en cette ville, sommes transport6s en l'h/o\tel dudit Mylord comte de Nairne par nous trouv/e en son dit h/o\tel, accompagne de Messire Thomas Nairne, chevallier de l'ordre royal et militaire du Write, et de Messire Henry Nairne, ancien capitaine au R/egiment Royal-Ecossais, ses deux fils, nous a dit que Dame Jeanne de Mcpherson, ve de S . . . . . r
(illegible; query "Sieur" or "Seigneur') . . . . . (illegible) de Mcpherson, ag/ee d'environ trente huit ans, . . . retir/ee en France depuis le d/ece\ds de son mary arriv/e en Ecosse vers l'ann/ee mil sept cent quarante six ou mil sept cent quarante sept, demeurante en ce royaume sous la protection du Roy (a line here deleted). ,. . . . et avec et dans la maison dudit Mylord Nairne depuis l'ann/ee mil sept cent cinquante deux, apre\s une maladie de quatre semaines qualliffi/ee par les medicins de fie\vre putride, vient de d'ec/eder chez lui, il y a environ une heure de temps, dans laquelle circonstance a 1'/effet de constater le temps du d'/ece\ds de laditte Dame de Mcpherson et que le pr/esent acte puisse en ce royaume, suivant les loix qui y sont /etablis, et partout ailleurs ou\ besoin seroit, luy servir d'acte mortuaire, ledit Mylord comte de Nairne avec lesdits messires Thomas et Henry Nairne, ses fils, nous font la pr/esente d/eclaration dont ils ont ensemblement

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requis acte que leur avons octroy/e, permettant que dans les vingt heures du d/ece\ds de la ditte dame de Mcpherson elle soit inhum/ee en la forme ordinaire, suivant la disposition des ordonnances rendues pour pareil cas, et lesdits Mylord comte de Nairne, Messires Thomas et Henry Nairne, sign/es avec nous, ledit procureur fiscal et notre greffier.

                                                  (Signatures) DESBANS         COMTE DE NAIRNE, PAIR D'ECOSSE                                                                                                         THO NAIRNE
                                                                                                        H NAIRNE
                                                                                                        PERRINET DE LASSAY
                                                                                                        C. GERMAIN         GREFFIER.

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English Translation

In the year 1766. Deed 98.
15 February 1766. Lady Jean Macpherson.
      Today, Saturday 15th February 1766, at the hour of 7 a.m., we Francois-Marie, Advocate in the Supreme Court and Baillie of the town and county of Sancerre, together with M. Etienne Perrinet de Lassay, Procurator Fiscal, and with Claude Germain, our clerk-in-ordinary, at the request of the high and mighty nobleman Lord John Nairn, count of Nairn, peer of the realm of Scotland, living in this town, were taken to the lodging of the aforesaid Lord Count of Nairn there to hear and to receive the declaration which he had given notice of having to make to us; which Lord Count of Nairn was found by us in his said lodging, accompanied by Sir Thomas Nairn, Knight of the Royal and Military Order of Merit, and by Sir Henry Nairn, former captain in the Regiment Royal Ecossaise, his two sons, and has told us that Lady Jeanne Mcpherson, widow of Lord . . . . Mcpherson, aged about thirty-eight years, who retired to France after the occurrence of her husband's death in Scotland in about the year 1746 or 1747, living in this kingdom under the protection of King . . . . and with and in the house of the aforesaid Lord Nairn since the year 1752, after an illness lasting four weeks, certified by the doctors as being a septic fever, died in his house, approximately an hour ago, under which circumstances in order to establish the time of death of the aforesaid Lady Mcpherson and that this present Deed may be effective in this kingdom according to the laws in force, and also in any place where there may be need, to serve as a Certificate of Death for her, the said Lord Count of Nairn, with the said Sir Thomas and Sir Henry Nairn, his sons, have made this present declaration, which we have recorded at their joint request, permitting that within twenty-four hours of the death of the aforesaid Lady Mcpherson she may be interred in accordance with the normal form, according to the provisions of the laws relating to such cases, and the aforesaid Lord Count of Nairn, Sir Thomas and Sir Henry Nairn have signed together with us, the said Procurator Fiscal and our Clerk.

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JAMES "OSSIAN" MACPHERSON'S ANCESTRY
an elucidation of the mystery
by ALAN G. MACPHERSON

       In the leading article of the "Fingal" Number (Creag Dhubh No. 13, p. 6), Major J. E. Macpherson made the statement that the translator of Ossian was the son of "Andrew Macpherson, brother of Lachlan of Nuide, who became the seventeenth chief of the clan". The present writer challenged this in a letter to the editor which appeared in Creag Dhubh No. 14, 1962 (p. 23), where a tentative genealogy was presented to suggest that his father, Andrew Macpherson in Invertromie, was the son of Andrew Macpherson, brother of Lachlan of Nuide. In this I was following statements made by W. Cheyne-Macpherson in his Chiefs of Clan Macpherson (p. 125) about the close relationship of "Ossian" to the Macphersons of Blairgowrie, based upon information obtained from that family. Brigadier Alan Macpherson of Blairgowrie's letter to Creag Dhubh No. 15 1963 (p. 44) confirms that this was first recorded in a clan genealogy compiled by his grandfather, Allan Macpherson of Blairgowrie (1815-1901). Further consideration of the evidence suggests that the Blairgowrie account is incorrect, and that Cheyne-Macpherson and the present writer were in error in following it. It is the purpose of this article to elucidate the mystery.

       It should be noted immediately that there is no mystery about James' birth. The baptismal register of the Parish of Kingussie records his birth on the 27th October 1736 to Andrew Macpherson in Invertromie and his wife Helen Macpherson, who is recorded under her maiden name according to the custom of the time. The problem revolves around the identity of these two individuals.

       The most important piece of evidence concerning his parents' identities comes in a statement in a letter from Alexander Clark, "writer at Ruthven in Badenoch", to the Reverend John Anderson, minister of Kingussie, one of the translator's executors, dated 25th October 1797 (the year after James' death and burial in Westminster Abbey):

       ". . . . . the late James Macpherson of Balville, Esquire, was born 27th October 1736, and dyed in February 1796, in the fifty-ninth year of his age. His father's name was Andrew Macpherson, son to Ewan Macpherson, brother to the then Macpherson of Cluny. His mother's name was Ellen Macpherson, daughter of a respectable tacksman of the second branch of the Clan." (Alexander Macpherson, Glimpses of Church and Social Life in the Highlands, pp. 255, 256). Alexander Clark, the informant, was a nephew of James Macpherson, being son of James' only sister, Margaret, and can be accepted as a reliable witness. The problem now, is to identify "the then Macpherson of Cluny", that is, the chief in 1736, and find evidence of his having a brother Ewan, and to identify "the second branch of the Clan", and its tacksmen around 1700 when, we may assume, Helen (Ellen) Macpherson was born.

       The new evidence comes from Sir Aeneas Macpherson of Invereshie's marvellously detailed, genealogy of the clan, a copy of which has been

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discovered recently in the Invereshie Book in the Clan Museum. The genealogy was finished in 1705, and contains marriages and births which occurred immediately prior to that date. Among the marriages is that of Lachlan Macpherson of Nuide, who became Laird of Cluny and chief of the clan in 1722, and whose eldest son, Ewan of Cluny, led the men of Badenoch in the Jacobite Rising of 1745. Lachlan of Nuide and Cluny died in 1746, and must be the chief referred to in Alexander Clark's statement. Sir Aeneas Macpherson's genealogy shows that, besides three legitimate brothers and six sisters, Lachlan of Nuide had an illegitimate half-brother, Ewan, who was married to Bessy Clark, a daughter of Alexander Clark of Tullochmagerry. No children are recorded of this marriage, and it might be a reasonable assumption that it was a new one made about 1704. Ewan and Lachlan of Nuide's common parent was William of Nuide who, according to the genealogy, was married in 1667; it is probable that Ewan was born a year or two prior to that date, and was about 35 years old in 1700. It should be noted that illegitimacy was not a social stigma in the seventeenth century in the Highlands -- although it carried penalties in terms of inheritance of property. Ewan Macpherson was not only acknowledged by his father before the clan, but had obtained a good marriage with a wellknown and respected family of some property.

       With the evidence from the Invereshie genealogy the relationship of James Macpherson to the families of Cluny and Blairgowrie can be restated. He was, in fact, a second cousin of Duncan of the Kiln and Allan of Blairgowrie.

       The evidence of Alexander Clark and the Invereshie genealogy seems conclusive, and the writer is prepared to accept it as correct. However, there is conflicting evidence from another source which must be examined. Douglas of Glenbervie's "Baronage of Scotland", published in 1798, contains a fairly detailed genealogy of a few leading families in the clan. Internal evidence dates this information to 1766, thirty years before Clark's statement. In spite of this date, Glenbervie's information

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is only reliable in places: much of it is highly inaccurate and misleading, despite his access to Sir Aeneas' manuscript genealogy and several informants among the clansmen. For what it is worth, Glenbervie makes the following statement about William Macpherson, second son of John of Nuide, and uncle of William of Nuide:

       " . . . married twice, and of him there are a great many descendents, particularly the celebrated Mr. James Macpherson who translated Ossian's poems, &c., and is now secretary to the province of West Florida, &c."

       Sir Aeneas Macpherson of Invereshie's genealogy confirms that John of Nuide's second son was called William, that he was married twice, and that his second son was called Ewan. This Ewan, according to Sir Aeneas, was married to Bessy Macpherson, daughter of Donald Dow Macpherson, son of Captain Thomas of Invertromie, one of Montrose's officers in the great campaign of 1645 during the Civil War. No children are recorded, although married nephews and nieces are shown in the Nuide genealogy. Both Ewan and his wife belong to a generation earlier than that of Lachlan of Nuide and his brothers, but this does not exclude them as possible grandparents for James "Ossian" Macpherson. The Invertromie genealogy does not show any member of the generation after Bessy, although there were seven marriages recorded among her Invertromie cousins, including Duncan Macpherson of Invertromie himself.

       The alternative genealogy would look like this:

       Bessie Macpherson was the only child of Donald Dow Macpherson, and she probably inherited her father's right to possession of land in the farm of Invertromie. It will be recalled that James Macpherson's father, Andrew, was a tenant in Invertromie in 1736 when James was born. If Glenbervie's information is accepted as correct, it implies that Andrew was in Invertromie by right through his mother, not through right of his father. We have to dismiss Alexander Clark's claim on our credence and ignore his statement that James' grandfather, Ewan Macpherson, was a brother of the "then Macpherson of Cluny".

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The MacPherson Shield
       Two members of the Canadian Branch, brothers James F. MacPherson, Jr., and William MacPherson of Sarnia, Ontario, have inaugurated an Annual MacPherson Bonspiel and presented The MacPherson Shield to the Sarnia Golf and Curling Club for Annual Men's Curling Competition.

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     [ In the following year's CREAG DHUBH (No. 17 of 1964) the Editor pointed out that this dinner was held by the Clan Chattan Association in Edinburgh on 9th December, 1898. At this dinner, Cluny was hailed as Chief of Clan Chattan. The Chief at that time was Colonel Ewan, #22 , second son of 'Old Cluny'. What wasn't mentioned is that there were two competing Clan Chattan societies at the time -- one organized by the Macphersons and the other by the Mackintoshes. I expect that this competition went on until 1914 when the Nation had other fish to fry. It wasn't until 1933 that the Macphersons and Mackintsh buried their hatchets and formed the present day Clan Chattan Association.] .

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       James Macpherson appears now as a third cousin once removed to Allan of Blairgowrie, and the question arises as to what family obligations were responsible for bringing them together in their early boyhood. Allan and his brother John were brought up with James after the Rising of 1745, in which William the Purser was killed. Were Andrew in Invertromie and Helen Macpherson the foster-parents? Most important of all, where in Badenoch was James brought up? Answers to these questions would help to reduce the dilemma.

       The identity of Helen Macpherson, "daughter of a respectable tacksman of the second branch of the clan", presents even greater difficulties than that of James' father. Sir Aeneas' genealogy shows that the second branch of the clan in 1705 consisted of the families of Pitmain, Invertromie, Pitchirn, Clune, Strathmashie, Tirfodown, Garvamore, Shiromore, Bealid, Coronach and Invernahaun. For some reason no representatives of Pitmain, Invertromie, Bealid and Coronach appear in the Arbitration Bond signed by the tacksmen of the clan at Clune in May 1722, but this does not mean that these families were no longer prominent after that date. We have a wide choice.

       It is always dangerous to base genealogical arguments upon first names. The name Helen appears in the families of Pitmain, Pitchirn, Coronach and Invernahaun. The name Margaret appears in the families of Invertromie, Clune and Invernahaun. No conclusions can be drawn from these facts. On the other hand, Duncan Macpherson of Invertromie appears in Sir Aeneas' genealogy as married to Margaret Grant of Achnahannet. We might speculate that Helen Macpherson was a daughter of Duncan of Invertromie and Margaret Grant, and that she named her daughter after her mother.

       If we assume that Helen was a daughter of the tacksman of Invertromie several implications can be drawn. First it tends to dismiss Glenbervie's statement as incorrect. It implies that Andrew in Invertromie was tenant there by right of his wife and not by right of his mother. It further implies that Andrew may have moved from Invertromie when he succeeded to rights in land in the township of Nuide after his father Ewan's death. In this connection it is interesting to note that he was not among the Macphersons from Invertromie who surrendered at the end of the Rising in 1746. It is also noteworthy that one Andrew Macpherson in Ballintian surrendered at Blair Castle on the 17th May 1746, Ballintian being part of the farm of Laggan of Nuidbeg in the township of Nuide. He was evicted from Ballintian in 1751 by Ewan Macpherson, wadsetter of Laggan of Nuidbeg, a younger son of the Macphersons of Benchar, themselves a branch of the Macphersons of Nuide. If Andrew in Ballintian is identical with Andrew in Invertromie his eviction was in the nature of a family quarrel, probably involving the family of Cluny as principal in the wadset. Andrew in Ballintian moved to Nuidmore, another part of the township of Nuide possessed by another cousin, Donald Macpherson of Coulintinn. In 1751 and 1752 Andrew was ground officer on the Annexed Estate of Cluny, and was engaged till 1756 in an attempt to have the wadset of

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Laggan declared void in accord with the wishes of the family of Cluny. This could all be regarded as circumstantial evidence that this was the father of James Macpherson the translator. Again, we have to ask where James Macpherson spent his boyhood in Badenoch.

       According to Brig. Alan D. Macpherson of Blairgowrie (Private Communication: 29th May 1963), the mother of Allan and John, and widow of William the Purser, was Anna Macpherson. Cheyne-Macpherson limits his reference to this lady in his "Chiefs" (p. 125) with the remark that she was the relict or widow of Grant of Laggan when William the Purser married her. The Blairgowrie family, however, have documentary evidence that she was originally Anna Macpherson, sister of Donald Macpherson of Kinlochlaggan and Alexander Macpherson in Druminuird, a small farm in Strathmashie. Her family was, in fact, a cadet of the Macphersons of Strathmashie. Blairgowrie says that Allan and John appear to have lived with their maternal uncle, Alexander in Druminuird, after their father's death. If so, there appears to be little room for James. Perhaps James' mother was a Strathmashie rather than an Invertromie, but this would force us to accept Glenbervie's version. Another explanation might be that there was a fostering relationship between the Strathmashie and Invertromie Macphersons. We know practically nothing about the way this custom would work in the early eighteenth century Highlands.

       A question about the location of William the Purser's home in Badenoch elicited from Blairgowrie the fact that this was believed to have been near Crathie Bridge. This connection, although peripheral to the problem of James Macpherson's ancestry, raises problems not unrelated. The 1705 genealogy makes it perfectly clear that the Macphersons of Crathie Croy were cadets of Clunie who branched off in the mid-1500s. Glenbervie, however, makes two statements about the origin of the family, both in conflict with the 1705 genealogy:
       1. He states that Andrew, third son of John of Nuide, was the "ancestor of the Macphersons of Crathy-Croy". The 1705 MS makes it perfectly clear that this man was the ancestor of the Macphersons of Benchar.

       2. He further states that Andrew, third son of William of Nuide, was the ancestor of James Macpherson of Crath-Croy. This last person, it is implied, was alive in 1766 when Glenbervie's material was collected. In this connection it is noteworthy that there is evidence, quoted in "The Chiefs" (p. 125), that William the Purser had an elder brother James who might well have been alive in 1766 and in possession of Crathy Croy. James of Crathy Croy would then be a cousin of Andrew in Invertromie, if we accept Alexander Clark's version, and it might well be the case that James "Ossian" lived part of his boyhood with him. Crathy Croy is close enough to Druminuird to make it quite possible that he would see something of his cousins, Allan and John.

       Obviously, in elucidating this problem no solution has been found. It is the present writer's view, however, that the most likely explanation

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of James' ancestry is that given by Alexander Clark: that his father was a son of Ewan Macpherson, a bastard half-brother of Lachlan Macpherson of Nuide and Cluny; and that his mother was a daughter of the tacksman of Invertromie.

______________

SOLDIER, SCHOLAR AND POET
by J. E. MACPHERSON
       Lauchlan Macpherson of Strathmashie, lieutenant in Cluny's Regiment in the '45, was a well-known poet and Gaelic scholar. He helped James Macpherson with his translations of the Ossianic ballads and his Gaelic verse was popular in the Highlands, being intended more for entertainment than moral uplift. On occasion, however, he moralises, as is shown by the following example. It appeared in a collection of Gaelic poems called, "The Owl Remembers", made by the Rev. John Mackechnie, M.A., and translated by Dr. Patrick McGlynn. It is reprinted as a reminder of a distinguished clansman.

COR AN T-SAOGHAIL

                                                 The sluagh an t-saoghail so 'nan deannaibh,
                                                 Fear a'sgaoileadh, 's fear a' teannail,
                                                 Fear ag carnadh oir 's 'ga mhuchadh,
                                                 'S fear 'ga ol an dluth le caithreim.

                                                 Bhuainn e, dhaoine, 's gabhaidh 'n seol e
                                                 Bhi ro-ghlic no bhi ro-ghorach,
                                                 Leigibh dhibh e's leanaibh mise,
                                                 So agaibh a nis mo dho\ighsa :--

                                                 Gun bhi ro-chaiteach no 'nam dhaolaig,
                                                 Ag cruinneachadh oir no 'ga sgaoileadh:
                                                 Ma gheibh mi biadh, tein' is earradh,
                                                 Tha mi toilichte dhe'n t-saoghal.

                                                 'N uair bhuaileas an t-eug a ghath orm,
                                                 Tha mo Shlanuighear air a chathair,
                                                 'S bheir e mi cho luath do Pharras
                                                 'S ged b'e righ na Spainne m'athair.

Translation

THE STATE OF THE WORLD

                                                         All today is devastation,
                                                         Men by many plagues tormented,
                                                         Hoarding, wasting, dissipation
                                                         Such the sins of minds demented.

                                                         Truce to this. Such life is hollow.
                                                         Choose the golden mean to guide you.
                                                         Truce now, and my precepts follow,
                                                         Keep this rule of life beside e you.

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                                                         Grateful for what God has sent me,
                                                         Gold I neither hoard nor squander.
                                                         Raiment, fire and food content me;
                                                         From this path I do not wander.

                                                         When Death to the grave shall bear me,
                                                        God amid the just shall gather
                                                         My poor soul, nor would prefer me
                                                         Were the King of Spain* my father.

*The King of Spain being the eighteenth century symbol of wealth and power.

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AN ALVIE WEDDING OF 1850

       The following verses, whose authorship is unknown, were found by our Hon. Secretary, A. F. Macpherson. They were among papers belonging to his grandfather, who was born in Drumgask, Laggan, but who, after his father had given up the tenancy of the inn and farm had moved to Inverness, spent much of his time with his maternal uncle (the "Mr. Fraser" of the poem) who was Factor, at Kinrara, Alvie.

Let Farmers vent their ire and hate
Against the ruling powers of State,
Let men of commerce grumble more
Because they're pressed so wondrous sore;
Let every tradesman loud complain
That times are bad and must remain
Tiff saws and precept are in use
That will annihilate all abuse.
Give me my harp that I may bring
A lively note from every string
And in its humble powers confiding
I'll tell you of a Highland Wedding;
Within the wooded Vale of Spey,
A festival both grand and gay
Took place when linked were together
By Hymen's string and binding tether
A gentleman and lady fair
Would match the nymphs of classic air;
That festive day from break of dawn
Was hailed with joy by every one
And soon large parties did repair
To join each of the happy pair,
Proceeding to their destination
They witnessed loyal demonstration;
The Bridegroom forthwith did appear,
Impatient was his bonny dear
And soon the ceremony was gone through,
The Holy man performed his due;                            The Parson
Then bona fide the feast began
The dance, the drink, the mirth, the fun,

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'Tis hard indeed the time to name
When we can see the like again;
The road was bad, and dark the night
But hearts and feet were fain and light
And soon the piper's eager strains
Were heard approach the home domains;
Collected there a jovial crew
They were the many not the few;
The music sure was heart inspiring
And you'd think Gibraltar's guns were firing;
With greetings meet the Bride was hailed
And lasting cheers each ear assailed;
But now I may my reader warn
That the proceedings in the barn
Will at my hands due credit lose
When I attempt to tell the news,
"Little John" proclaimed order                               Drumcloan
Keeping all and sundry sober
"Paddy" pushed about the jorum,
Mr. Fraser kept decorum;
Enough of this for now I mean
That lads and lasses be my theme
For there a group of fair were seen
Would grace the levee of our Queen;
I must conclude from what I saw
That night within the bridal ha'
That there are bonny lasses still                             the Misses Cameron at Balinliesh
On Avon's banks beyond the hill;
The Banker seemed a little proud                           Dalraddy's son, Accountant in the C. Bank
Parading up and down the crowd
For he believed he had won the Belle
His partner pleased him so very well.                   Miss Cameron, his partner
Her dress was nice but then its form
Betrayed the native Cairngorm;
He who the upper part did wear                             Belliforth's son who got Miss Cameron's polka
To great advantage did appear;                             (fur-trimmed Polish coat) and wore it
But I can doubtless make you sure
A more ungainly caricature
Has not appeared for many ages
On Master Punch's sarcastic pages;
An excessive love for dancing,
Shouting, laughing, kicking, prancing
Seemed to inspire the antique lads
Who wore the ugly masquerades;
At Highland dance and Tulloch's reel                    Schoolmaster of Grantown had the misfortune to
The Dominie was light of heel                                  tear MissCameron's dress while dancing a reel
But got entangled in the trail
That swept about the Lady's tail;
The lad who wore the bonnet blue                           Donald Shaw, Auchgourish
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With Scotia's emblem in its brow
Seemed following some forlorn hope                          Miss Grant, Dalraddy
For to his mirth he gave no scope;
But Cumming sure the whole did ding                        William Cumming, Lynwilg
At dancing "Paddy's" Highland Fling
And gave them many comic jokes
As well as several shaving strokes;
I would occupy my time too much
To give the whole a passing touch
Though many more deserved praise
I'll pass them off for some few days
But when my muse her breath will take
I'll mind the flowers from Alvie's Lake                        Misses Grant, Dalraddy;
As well as those from Nethy's Braes                         Cummings, Lynwilg
All who this galliard gay did grace
From Garten, Tulloch and each place,
Not forgetting Peter Bain                                             The Fiddler, who wore spectacles
Who played in such a happy strain;
He too deserves my best respects
And long may he enjoy his specs;
To this you'll get a large addition
When I write out my next edition.

1st October 1850

A . F. Macpherson comments in sending this: "I have tried to identify various place names mentioned but have not been successful in the case of Drumcloan, Balinliesh and Belliforth. As there are references in the ballad to Nethy and the Avon it may be that some of these localities are a considerable distance from the scene of the celebration (at Alvie).

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UAIMH CHLUANAIDH (CLUNY'S CAVE)
by JOHN M. BARTON (Edinburgh)

       To most members of the Clan Macpherson, Cluny's Cave on Creag Dhubh is a symbol of the nine years, after the battle of Culloden in 1746, which Ewan the 18th Chief spent in hiding. Although the cave is close to the main road from Newtonmore to Laggan, few people seem, to know where it is, nor how to get to it. In recent years, several parties have gone up to the cave during the weekend of the Clan Rally, but there are still no signposts nor indications of the route, apart from a few small cairns at the approach to the cliff path which leads along, to the cave.

       The cave is situated on the south side of Creag Dhubh, opposite the westernmost of the two small lochs known. as Lochain Ovie, on the bank of the Spey, a little more than three miles from the Clan House in Newtonmore. The cave is on the, most precipitous part of the cliff

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above the road, and the entrance can be seen from a small sand-pit on the roadside. High up on the cliff are two horizontal rows of small trees, and the cave is nearly halfway along the lower row. The Clan Museum has a folder of photographs relating to the cave and, although they are now somewhat faded, they serve to show its approximate position on the hill. There is also a photograph in The Chiefs of the Clan Macpherson by Macpherson of Dalchully, and this indicates how steep is this part of Creag Dhubh.

       The cave itself is surprisingly small and would be too confined to accommodate more than one or two persons for any length of time. It is narrow throughout its length and runs parallel to the side of the cliff in an easterly direction. In its principal part it is some twenty feet long and it varies between five and six feet in height. It is thus possible to walk into the cave without much stooping. The floor is mainly of hard-packed earth, but there are a few outcrops of rock which would make the cave uncomfortable to sleep in. The width of the floor is in places no more than a foot, but it widens at waist level to some three or four feet and narrows again towards the roof. The walls are too uneven to give any accurate measurements, particularly near rooflevel where there is a sloping shelf in places.

       At the far end of the cave is a small compartment at a slightly higher level, and this might have been used as a fireplace or store. It is only about four feet high and five feet long, and has a rough and rocky floor. A feature of this small compartment is its two small openings, one on the roof and the other in a corner of the floor, which not only give some light to the cave but also keep it dry and aired. There is a similar opening in the principal part of the cave. No signs of any former occupation can be seen, but Grant R. Francis in his Romance of the White Rose tells of a sgian dubh and a small drinking cup which were found in the cave.

       A large platform of rock lies at the entrance to the cave, about three feet high and five feet long, which may well have served as a natural table. It also forms the doorstep to the cave, for every visitor must step on this rock before jumping down into the mouth of the cave. There are only one or two trees in the close vicinity and, nowadays, anyone entering or leaving the cave can easily be seen from the road below. There is a tradition that the hillside was heavily wooded in the eighteenth century, and this must have been so because the Hanoverian Forces under Sir Hector Munro never found the cave.

       Cluny had other hiding-places, most of them artificial, which he occupied during his nine years in Badenoch, after Culloden. The best known of his artificial structures was the famous "Cage" on the southern shoulder of Ben Alder, where Cluny entertained Prince Charles in September 1746; and there were other hiding-places at Ralia, Biallidmore, Strathmashie and Nessintully (south of Lochain Ovie). Between 1746 and 1755, Cluny's continued residence in Badenoch was regarded by the Hanoverian Government as constituting a major security risk, and

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there was a reward of one thousand guineas for information leading to his capture. Accordingly he never remained long in any one place and, if his presence became known to more than one family, he moved on immediately. Very few of his hiding places were ever discovered by his enemies.

       For anyone staying in Badenoch or passing through the district, a visit to the cave on Creag Dhubh makes a most interesting afternoon. The expedition should not be taken lightly, however, for it entails a hard and steep climb and the ground can be very slippery in places. For these reasons any intending visitor should have some grip on the soles of his shoes and should take great care on the climb and on the descent. The only safe route to the cave is by keeping close to the deer fence a few yards to the east of the sand-pit opposite Lochain Ovie. It is better to keep to the left side of this fence in order to avoid having to cross it high up on the hill, and to follow it until reaching about five hundred feet above the road where the fence turns sharply to the right. This part of the climb is the most arduous for, in addition to the steepness, the ground is very rough and slippery with most annoying branches of scrub getting in the way of the climber.

       The corner of the deer fence is level with the cave and, at this point, the visitor is more than half way there. However, owing to the roughness of the terrain, it is not possible to contour round the hill and the only safe way is to climb for a further fifty feet in a leftward direction through the wooded hillside towards a light-coloured cliff. Turning left along the base of this cliff, a path appears which is marked by a few small cairns. This path gradually descends and narrows as it comes out on the tree-lined ridge, but it stops suddenly on the table-shaped rock at the entrance to the cave.

       On a good day there is an excellent view from the cave which makes the climb almost a worthwhile end in itself, with a wide expanse of the western Cairngorms on the skyline. Nearer, the River Spey, Lochain Ovie and the Laggan Road are all laid out as if on a map. The view below is the most impressive, however, for the cave is situated at the top of an almost vertical rock-face and it demonstrates the excellent situation of the hide-out. It would certainly have been impossible for an enemy to surprise the occupants of the cave by approaching it from any other route than the cliff path described.

       It is hoped that this article will help any Clan members who wish to visit the cave and also to discourage anyone from wandering aimlessly over this dangerous part of Creag Dhubh.

EDITORIAL NOTE -- Mr. Barton comments on the fact that there are no signposts leading to the cave. There has recently been a certain amount of correspondence in The Badenoch Record on this very point and the matter was considered by the Clan Council. It cannot be too strongly emphasised that the climb can be very dangerous -- there has indeed been a fatal accident in the vicinity within the past twelvemonth -- and the Association cannot and must not take responsibility for any public notice which might be construed as an invitation to attempt the ascent.

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LEARNING AND USING GAELIC

       It is clear that there is a growing interest in the Gaelic language at the present day. It is equally clear that its speakers are decreasing more rapidly now than in any previous age. Gaelic, however, is not yet dead and it need never die if those who profess a love of the language will only adopt a more militant attitude towards the use of it. That this is the only practical. solution will be appreciated especially by those who have had the good fortune to serve in Palestine in the years between the wars, when the flood of Jewish immigration from all the lands of Europe was at its height. Very few of the immigrants spoke more than a few words of Hebrew -- except for use in religious services the language was dead. However it was revived as the conscious national symbol of a re-born nation, and today it fulfils all the social, commercial and scientific needs of the Jewish people in Israel.

       The revival of Hebrew was faced with far more difficulties than confront us in Gaelic. The language was dead -- Gaelic is far from dead. Hebrew was faced with competition, not only from the English of the Mandatory Government, but from the native languages of the immigrants and, to an even greater extent, from the Yiddish tongue which formed a lingua franca amongst all Jews of every nationality. It was faced, too, with an active and vocal opposition from a large proportion of the people who held that it was a sacred language, not to be defiled by everyday usage but to be maintained purely for religious use. In spite of all this, Hebrew was revived. Gaelic, with none of these difficulties to face, continues to decline.

       This is no place to enter into the many and disgraceful discouragements which the language faces, imposed by the educational authorities, to say nothing of parental apathy, in the Gaelic-speaking areas. We are concerned at present merely with a general line of conduct to be followed by those who would like to see Gaelic reinstated as one of the principal languages of Scotland, in current and general use. The advantages of bi-lingualism need no stressing. The cultural and historic profit from knowing one's ancestral tongue are obvious. Equally obvious is the fact that many more people would today be learning and, what is more, speaking Gaelic if they were not discouraged by a defeatist attitude which is to a large extent prompted by those who ought to be in the forefront of the battle for the language. For example one need only mention the fact that the notice for An Comunn Gaidhealach's annual. meeting was this year sent out not in Gaelic, not bi-lingually, but in English only! With this example from those who should be leading the attack, it is small wonder that the rank-and-file tend to lose heart and to give up the straggle.

Use It or Lose It
       There is a simple and an easy remedy for all the ills that confront the Gaelic tongue. This is the development of its use in normal speech and conversation -- and this is by no means as difficult as it might seem.

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       There is not a Scot who does not know one word at least of Gaelic and who cannot toast a friend with the word Slainte! (Health). Add to this foundation, and the next time that you are in company drink to Slainte mhath! (pronounce it 'slahntye vah') and you have now learned the word for 'good'. Go ahead from this and learn to say, Slainte mhath agus slainte mhor (pronounce the last word 'vor') and your vocabulary already consists of four words meaning 'Health', 'Good', 'And' (agus) and 'Great'. "Good Health and Great Health!" What could be easier?

       Don't bother about pronunciation at present, but begin your letters, A Charaid Choir (A is the sign of the vocative, Charaid is 'friend', choir is 'dear'. Or, if you are addressing a lady, A Bhana-charaid -- and this brings in yet another word, the feminine prefix which you speak of your wife, Mo bhean and so on. Sign your letters in Gaelic, too. "Is mise" meaning 'I am, myself'. Enlarge upon this to include, Is mise le speis ('with regards'). Or Is mise le gach speis ('with all regards') or even, is mise le gach speis agus deagh-ghean (add 'best wishes'). Sixteen words already -- and it wasn't hard work!

Pronunciation and Spelling
       So often one heard the wail of despair, "I could never get my tongue round the Gaelic words, and as for the spelling . . . . !"

       Admittedly there can be an initial difficulty in pronouncing Gaelic, but this is a very minor point. When you travel in France, nobody expects you to speak like a native -- the great point is that you are trying and can, above all, make yourself understood in the language. It is surely no trouble to apply the same standard to the use and development of your Gaelic vocabulary.

       As for the spelling difficulties -- criticism of these comes badly from people who make no hardship of using the letters "ough" in no fewer than six different pronunciations! Letters and the combination of letters are merely tools, to be adapted for use as required. Gaelic has certain conventions in the use of letters, and particularly in the use of the letter "h". which has no place in the Gaelic alphabet but which serves merely. to modify the sound of other letters. This, too, should present no difficulty to the English-speaking who is accustomed to using the letter in the same way when the aspirate turns the explosive 'P' into the soft 'Ph', pronounced as 'F'.

       It is extraordinary and surprising how quickly one can build up quite a reasonable vocabulary with hardly any effort. Moderate perserverance and good-will is all that is needed. Try it -- agus gu'm a math a bhios sibh! 'And may it go well with you!'

MOLADH BEINN DORAIN -- PRAISE OF BEN DORAN
      The OranMor -- 'the Great Song' of ancient Gaeldom -- was composed to be sung to the air of a pibroch with all its complicated variations. Incomparably the 'Praise of Ben Doran', written, probably

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in or about 1760, by Duncan Ban Macintyre known in Gaelic as Donnachadh Ban nan Orain. This magnificent poem, of more than 550 lines, sings of the glories of the mountain and, in particular, of the deer living on it and, both in music and in words, it is unsurpassed.

       Few men nowadays are capable of singing the Oran Mor in the traditional style. It is fortunate, therefore, that opportunity was taken of making a recording of Kenneth Macrae singing part of 'Ben Doran' when he was performing, some years ago, in the Usher Hall in Edinburgh. This record is beyond praise. The music is magnificently played and, sung with an organ accompaniment, the Gaelic is clear and distinct. Lovers of music, lovers of Gaelic and those interested only in improving their Gaelic all will delight in it. The record is made by Waverley on a 7-inch (45 r.p.m.) disc No. SLP 512. The music is published in Book 2 of Coisir a' Mhoid (Maclaren & Sons for An Comunn Gaidhealach. 2s. 6d.).

       We print here the words as sung on the record, to which we have appended a translation, line by line, in the hopes that this will still further encourage Gaelic enthusiasts:

Urlar Basic Movement (Theme)
An t-urrarn thar gach beinn The nobility over every mountain
Aig Beinn-do\rainn! (goes) to Ben Doran!
Na chunnaic mi fo'n ghr/ein I have not seen under the sun
Si bu bho\iche learn; Any more beautiful to me;
Monadh fada, r/eidh, Long, smooth mountain-moor,
Cuile 'in faighte f/eidh, Dells where the deer were found,
Soilleireachd an t-sl/eibhe The outline of the moors
Bha mi so\nnrachadh. I was observing.
  
Siubhal Intermediate Movement
Si 'n eilid bheag, bhinneach, The small hind, homed,
Bu ghuiniche sraonadh Of keenest speed
Le cuinnein geur, biorach, With keen slender nostrils
A sireadh na gaoithe, Probing the breezes,
Gasganach, speireach, Gallant, slender-limbed,
Feadh chreachainn na beinne, Amongst the rocks of the mountain,
Le eagal ro' theine, With fear of being shot
Cha teirinn i 'n t-aonach; Does not descend into the plain;
Ged th/eid i na cabhaig, Though she makes haste,
Cha ghearain i maothan. She will not complain of her breast.
  
Crunluaith Fast Movement
Tha 'n eilid anns a ghleannan so; The hind is in this glen;
Cha 'n amadan gu'n eo\las It is not a fool without knowledge
A leanadh i mar b'aithne dha Can follow her, unless he knows
Tig'n farasda na co\dhail, To come gently to the meeting
Gu faiteach bhi 'na h-earalas, He will carefully and cautiously
Tig'n' am faigse dh'i mu'n caraich i, Come skilfully before she notices,
Gu faicilleach, gle earraigeach, Warily, very circumspectly,
Mu'm fairich i ga coir \ e; Lest she observe his intention;
Gu faicilleach, gle earraigeach, Warily, very circumspectly.
Mu'm fairich i ga. coir \e. Lest she observe his intention.

(Text from Sar-obair nam Bard Gaelach by John Mackenzie (1872); translation JHM).

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THE CLAN HOUSE

                                                           Lord Macpherson of Drumochter
                                                           A Clansman to the core,
                                                           Achieved his life's ambition --
                                                           'The Clan House, Newtonmore'.

                                                           His comrades the committee
                                                           All dedicated men
                                                           To see Clan Vurich's standard
                                                           Unfurled in the glen.

                                                           They sought not personal glory
                                                           But honoured to a man
                                                           With their glorious heritage,
                                                           Being members of the Clan.

                                                           Such Clansmen did command success
                                                           Of that there's ample proof,
                                                           The Cluny Relics they're arrayed
                                                           Beneath the Clan House roof.

                                                           Youth unfurl the banner,
                                                           Keep it flying high.
                                                           Let the name Macpherson
                                                           Never, never die.

                                                                                                                    TOM CATTANACH
                                                                                                                    The Newtonmore Bard

____________

THE CLAN HOUSE

       Early in August, The Badenoch Record printed an account of the year's activities in Clan House during the weeks up to that date, and this article is reproduced with the Editor's kind permission. Since then our indefatigable Curator has written to bring the various figures up-to-date for the 1963 season. He writes:

       In course of the season 1963, signatures to the number of 1,621 appear in the Visitors' Book at the Clan Museum, being seventy fewer than in 1962. Scotland contributed 748, England 662, Wales 6, Northern Ireland 10, Eire 2, Australia 10, Canada 45, New Zealand 15, U.S.A. 57, Continent of Europe 39, and, in addition, 27 came from elsewhere overseas.

       Thirty-eight, claiming Macpherson kith and kin, enrolled as new Members of the Clan Association. Of the new Members , twelve are domiciled in Scotland, eleven in England, four in Canada, two in Australia, six in the U.S.A., two in Cape Town and one in Venezuela.

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Curator's Report

BADENOCH TOURISM As reflected by the Clan Macpherson Museum
(contributed)
       At the conclusion of a fact-finding tour of the Highlands last year, the Minister of State for Scotland, speaking of tourism, is reported to have stated: "Having just spent a week in scenery unmatched in the world for beauty, there was evidence that things were not as good as last year, a peak period for tourism." A similar tour, had such been undertaken this year, would have disclosed that, in Badenoch at least, the 1963 summer tourist position up to the end of July had been less flourishing than in the years referred to by the Minister -- probably the only "business" to report progress being the ever-increasing "Bed-and-Breakfast" trade and the purveyors of camping sites. It is thus only to be expected that the Clan Macpherson Museum, Newtonmore, which depends so greatly upon the resident visitor and the travelling tourist should, by the number of callers, reflect this decline in the staple industry of the Highlands.

       During the period up to the end of July of this year, 756 (99 from overseas) signed the visitors' book. In the same period of last year the number was 872 (113 overseas), and in 196 1, described as the "peak year" and Newtonmore's "New Look Year" in the Tourist Scheme, the number was 886 of which 79 were from overseas. This year's overseas visitors include 29 from Canada, 29 from the U.S.A., 6 from Northern Ireland, 6 from New Zealand, 6 from East Africa, 3 from Australia,. 4 from South Africa, 4 from Sweden, 2 from Eire, 1 from each Germany, West Indies and Pakistan, 2 from Switzerland, and a family of 5 from Venezuela. Special interest attaches to the last-mentioned in that only one member, a young daughter, could speak or read English (Spanish being their native tongue); they claimed that they were descended from a "John Macpherson" who had left Scotland about 1801 and after a few years in New Zealand had moved on to their present home. The father signed the visitors' book and Clan membership application form as "Carlos Capriles Macpherson", by which name, he stated, he is known by his intimate friends in Venezuela.

       In recording this regrettable reduction in number of visitors for the period under review, it is a matter of much satisfaction to report that the museum's existence in the heart of Clan Macpherson country and the story associated with the relics and exhibits have, nevertheless, commanded an increase in appreciation as reflected by higher voluntary contributions to the "Collection Box" and that sales of this year's Creag Dhubh magazine and of the popular Green Booklet Clan History have shown an increase over previous years.

       It is equally satisfactory to relate that of those calling at the Museum, twentyone, claiming Clan Macpherson allegiance, accepted the curator's invitation to enrol as new members of the Clan Macpherson Association. The world-wide field from which those new members are drawn is indicated by their present places of residence, namely -- Canada (British Columbia, London (Ontario), Winnipeg, 3); U.S.A. (Florida, Ohio, Rhode Island, 3); Cape Town, 2; Venezuela, 1; Middlesex, 1; Surrey, 3; Sussex, 1; Renfrewshire, 6; Badenoch, 1.

       Several others, homeward bound, accepted application forms, to be handed over to their respective branches or passed to the Association treasurer.

       Up to date of going to Press the figures for August are encouraging.
                                                                                                                     J. MACDONALD
(Reprinted from THE BADENOCH RECORD 10/8/63).

Additions to Exhibits
       The following gifts to the Museum have been accepted:

       Two Books by the late Duncan Macpherson, M.D., of Banchor, who was Inspector-General of the Indian Medical Service; Antiquities of

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Kertch and Research of the Cimmerian Bosphorous, and Two Years in China -- 1840-1842. Presented by Colonel Sturrock, Catterick Camp.        Painting of Old Cluny. Presented by James Scrimgeour, Esq., of Craig Dhu Lodge.        British Bayonet, found near the Battlefield of Culloden. Presented by the Executors of the late John Macpherson, first Chairman of the Highland Branch of the Association.        Portrait of Major Duncan Macpherson and a Portrait of his brother, Major Ewan Macpherson of Glentruim. Presented by Dr. Helen M. M. MacKay, M.D., F.R.C.P., London (a great-granddaughter of Major Duncan Macpherson of Ralia).

_____________

SCOTTISH GRAMOPHONE RECORDS

       Records of Scottish artistes' made in Scotland by Scots and for Scots are not as many as one would like. Too many of our performers make their way south -- which shows creditable enterprise on the part of the English producers of gramophone records, but is disappointing for those of us who seek the home-grown product. However "Gaelfonn" of Glasgow continue to make excellent recordings both of Gaelic and Scots and are to be highly commended for their work.

       Recent recordings which have come to hand are a somewhat varied group. Outstanding is a genial, satirical and down-to-earth piece of modem Gaelic verse which will, without any doubt, have a hearing at ceilidhs for a very long time to come. Oran an A.I. tells of the bewilderment of the farmer who expected a bull to call and, instead, met a man in a white coat. It is sung delightfully by John "Hoddan" Macdonald, and is on record GLB 3601. On record GLB 3501, Mary Morrison sings Ged Bha mi na 'm Pheagach Cailite, a love song of gentle modesty, with Anail Beo as a sad little song on the reverse. In the old, traditional style of singing we hear Mima Matheson on record GLB 3701 singing Sud mar Chuir mi 'n Geamhradh Tharam, a love song of the West and one which Lewismen will particularly welcome, Ho-ri, Ho-ro mo Nionag, on the reverse is a most charming love song which should, of course, be sung by a man. But don't let us quibble about that -- the record is a joy to listen to.

       Finally, Gaelfonn have produced a Scottish recitation on each side of SMB 913. This is, perhaps, an unfortunate production though it will have an undoubted appeal to Scots in exile, for Hector Nicol has a warm, couthy voice which will bring nostalgic memories to many people with its clear accents in the Doric. It is to be regretted that he has not got better material than the frankly sentimental "The Auld Man" with its somewhat laboured humour and "The Wee Tanner Ba' " which is reminiscent of "thae recites" which we used to hear at the Kirk Soirees. A fair record this, but not up to the standard of the Gaelic ones reviewed above -- all of which are very much recommended.                                                                                                              J. H. M.

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LORD DRUMALBYN AND WHITESANDS

       Niall Macpherson has sat in the House of Commons as National Liberal-Conservative Member for Dumfries since 1945. His eighteen years of political service to the country brought him to office under Mr. Macmillan and he was at first a Joint Under-Secretary for-Scotland and, later, Minister of Pensions. In the present Government he is Minister of State, Board of Trade.

       His long service brought him to further honour when, in October, he was created a Baron and took the title of Lord Drumalbyn of Whitesands. Drumalbyn marks his Inverness-shire connections, and Whitesands is a name associated with Dumfries.

       Lord Drumalbyn is, of course, a son of the late Sir Stewart Macpherson, Newtonmore, and of Lady Macpherson. In his political career he followed a precedent already set in his family, for his uncle was the late Lord Strathcarron, who, as Ian Macpherson, was for many years Member for Ross and Cromarty.

       The whole Association will join in congratulating Lord Drumalbyn on his well-eamed honour which has served, too, to bring new lustre to the Clan name.

____________

A MACPHERSON HOUSE IN ONTARIO.

       The country around Napanee, in Ontario, has retained much of the old atmosphere of Upper Canada and there are some strong association in the district who are determined that the remaining links with Canada's past shall not be lost but shall be preserved for fature generations. Plans are being formulated for a scheme that it is hoped to complete in time for Canada's Centennial celebrations in 1967, whilst the aim is to have matters well under way when, this year, Napanee celebrates its own hundredth year. Part of this scheme is the establishment of a green belt of parkland around the town. Another, and vital part is the restoration of one of the oldest houses in the district. This house is one of very great interest to Macphersons.

"The Laird of Napanee"
       At the time of the War of 1812, one of the leading citizens of Napanee was Allan Macpherson who was nicknamed "The Laird of Napanee". He appears to have spread his talents and his activities over a wide swathe of local affairs for not only was he a Justice of the Peace, but he also owned a general store in the town, was owner of a distillery and of a saw-mill too, and had established Napanee's first grist-mill. His house was a famous centre for gatherings of young people and for the traditional ceilidh atmosphere of the frequent parties that were held there. It is recorded that Sir John A. Macdonald was a frequent visitor and actually served as the producer of a Christmas Masque which Mr. Macpherson's daughter had written. Sir John was, of course, the great

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architect of the Canadian Federation and his face is familiar to many people who, otherwise, know little of Canadian history, for it appeared on the Dominion stamps of 1927.

"The Laird" built his house in 1826 or thereabouts, and it is one of the very few buildings of that time which have survived intact. It remains almost untouched by change and it is considered to be one of the finest specimens of the style, the craftsmanship and the design of home-builders of the period.

       Survey of the building showed that the whole structure was in excellently strong condition and was eminently fit for full restoration. It had become somewhat shabby over the years, but apart from that there appeared to be no fault whatever in it. Its plan gives some indication of the extent of entertainment that formed a part of the life in Upper Canada in the first quarter of the last century. Not only is there a complete kitchen in the basement but there exist also most extensive kitchen apartments on the principal floor. On the second floor is a ballroom, and this must have been the scene of the Christmas masque which Sir John produced and must also have been the main centre for all the happy social gatherings which made the Laird's home famous throughout the surrounding country.

       It is a fitting tribute to Allan Macpherson, builder of the house, that the plans for the full restoration of his home include a resolution that the house shall serve as a community centre for Napanee. Its restorers are determined that it shall not be a mere museum of the past. It will, they declare, be a home once more, "with lights and laughter and with music", and will be available to all the various societies and organisations ations of the district for their social gatherings.

       The Clan can be proud of Allan Macpherson, "Laird of Napanee", who was prominent in his community but whose memory survives mainly through his hospitality. There is no Gael who will not consider this to be the finest and happiest memorial possible.

[This Allan and his house are also discussed in an article appearing in CD21 p.279-281]
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CLANSMEN OF THE YEAR
ALLAN GRANT MACPHERSON

       Allan, our new Chairman, is one of the earliest Members of the Association and has been an office-bearer ever since he took over the duties of Treasurer in 1950. He was a joint founder of the Inverness and North of Scotland Branch of the Association and was the Branch's first Secretary and Treasurer.

       Born in Inverness on 17th September, 1911, Allan was the second son of the late John Macpherson and Mrs. J. A. Macpherson of Raliadh, Inverness. Badenoch, though, can also lay claim to him as being almost a local boy, for most of his childhood holidays were spent in Newtonmore where his father was born and with which his mother had very close connections. His great-uncle, Duncan, was for long the owner of the Royal Hotel in Kingussie; his great-grandfather, too, was a native of Invertromie. Allan has even played shinty on the famous Eilean when he played for the Inverness Schoolboys against the Boys of Newtonmore.

       Educated at Inverness Royal Academy, Allan served his apprenticeship as a practical gunmaker and fishing tackle maker in Birmingham and Redditch respectively, and in 1934 he joined his father and elder brother in the Inverness firm of John Macpherson. He had been an enthusiastic member of the Boy Scouts for twenty-one years until, in 1940, he volunteered for service in the Armoury Section of the R.A.F., with which he saw service at home, and in Palestine, Egypt, the Western Desert, Algeria, Tunisia and Italy, before he was released on 11 th November, 1945.

       In 1945 he married Helen Pringle, and they have three daughters.

       Allan has served for three terms on the Council of the Inverness Chamber of Commerce, is vice-chairman of the Inverness Gathering of the Clans Association and is a member of the Board of Management of St. Stephen's Church of Scotland, Inverness.

       It is impossible to write of Allan without also speaking of Helen, "the other half of the team". All the Association know well how her enthusiasm and keenness have helped Allan and inspired him in his work of service. We know, too, what her work costs her in ill-health. For many of us, one of the highlights of the Annual Gathering is the sight of Helen, always charming, always smiling, sitting at the door of the ballroom with a welcome for everyone. It was only with her help that Allan was able to continue with his work as Hon. Treasurer of the Association for so many years, in addition to all his other activities. It was only when her health compelled her to take things more easily that he was obliged to hand over those duties in 1960. Helen is not only admired but is held in very warm affection by everyone of us.

       Allan became Vice-Chairman of the Association in 1960 and held that office until last year's Annual General Meeting when, unanimously

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and with acclamation, he was voted into the Chair. We may be sure that we may look forward to a period of great activity and development, in all Clan affairs, under his leadership.

LLOYD CAMPBELL MacPHERSON

       Lloyd Campbell MacPherson was born on 5th November, 1916, at MacLellan's Brook, Pictou County, Nova Scotia, and is the descendent of Scottish pioneers who immigrated to Nova Scotia in 1802.

       After attending local elementary and secondary schools, he obtained a Bachelor of Science degree from Mt. Allison University, Sackville, N.B., and a Master of Science in Education degree from Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. Lloyd began his career as an educator by teaching at Mt. Allison University and Mt. Allison Academy and then received an appointment to Stanstead College in the Eastern Townships of Quebec where for sixteen years he successively served as chemistry master, Dean of Boys, Acting Principal and Principal. In 1957, he was appointed Assistant to the Headmaster at St. Andrew's College, Aurora, Ontario, one of Canada's leading residential schools for boys. It is of interest to Scotsmen to know that, although the kilt has been worn at St. Andrew's for many years as part of the military cadet uniform, Lloyd has been successful during the past six years in encouraging quite a number of his boys to wear their own clan kilt as the regular day dress at the school and this success is, in part at least, due to the example which he sets as one who frequently wears the kilt.

       He has always been active in the educational field and he has served on both the Regional and Provincial Councils in the Adult Education Movement in Quebec. Amateur dramatics have also interested him within the scope of his school activities and he has been a member of the Executive Committee of the Festival de Jeunesse (Quebec) as well as Regional Director of the National Thespian Society.

       Lloyd is a keen student of clan history and genealogy and has written a book about his own branch of the clan. His interest in all things Scottish led him to the Court of the Lord Lyon King of Arms where, in 1958, he received a Grant of Arms from Lyon which numbers him among those twenty-six Macpherson clansmen who are entitled to bear Armorial Ensigns. The same year, he was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.

       Since the early days of the Clan Association in Canada, Lloyd has taken an active and most effective part in the work of the Canadian Branch. He has served as a Member of the Executive Committee, Delegate to the Clan Council, Vice-Chairman and Chairman of the Branch. During his period of office, he has travelled extensively both in Canada and abroad and has done much to foster the spirit of the Clan. The members of the Canadian Branch were particularly pleased to learn of Lloyd's election as Vice-Chairman of the Clan Association

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at the Annual Rally held at Newtonmore in August, 1963, and feel confident that he will contribute much to the continued success of the Association.

       Apart from being called upon from time to time to preach a sermon in the St. Andrew's chapel, Lloyd is an elder of the congregation in his local church in Aurora. His hobbies include mountain climbing, curling, photography, travel and reading.

_____________

ANNUAL RALLY 1963

Not included


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THE EXCURSION AT THE 1963 RALLY
by J. M. B.
       The Outing at this year's Rally again took the form of a tour of part of the Macpherson country and there was an attractive blending of historic and scenic interest in the places which were visited. The weather could only be described as wet but, notwithstanding this, there was more than a busload of clansmen and supporters who left the Duke of Gordon Hotel at Kingussie.

       The ruins of Ruthven barracks, on the south side of the Spey, was our first visit and it was a strong party which left the road, climbed the hill, and took the barracks by storm -- perhaps the first group of clansmen to 'invade' the barracks since the Forty-Five. The ruins are a landmark for miles around and it is not surprising that the mound on which the barracks now stand hag been the site of a number of castles, the last of which was destroyed 'by Dundee's forces in 1689. The barracks were only erected by General Wade in 1718 as part of the scheme to subdue the Highlanders. A garrison was maintained there until February 1746, when it capitulated to the Jacobites after a three-day siege during which the defence was gallantly carried out by a Sergeant Molloy who was later, on the recommendation of Prince Charles, given a commission in the Hanoverian Forces! After Culloden the remnants of the defeated clans assembled at the barracks and there received the orders to disperse, when they set fire to the buildings to prevent them again being used. It was heartening to see the work that the Ministry of Works had recently carried out in partially restoring the ruins. Nearby was the village of Ruthven, the old capital of Badenoch, where James

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Macpherson of "Ossian" fame was schoolmaster; but unfortunately few remnants of the old village now remain.

       From Ruthven we turned north over the Tromie and Feshie bridges to visit Loch an Eilean, the most beautiful area in Strathspey and perhaps one of the most picturesque in Scotland. The rain held off for just long enough to let us leave the bus and wander along the shore as far as the island after which the loch is named. The feature of this island is the ruined castle which used to be the stronghold of our neighbours, the Shaws and the Grants, and is said to have been one of the forts of the Wolf of Badenoch. The castle has the dark forest of Rothiemurchus and the high Cairngorms as its background and, although the mountains were not visible, many cameras were clicked to capture the view for all time. We were also entertained by the wonderful echo which comes back to anyone who calls over to the castle.

       On our return, Iain Pearson, our newly-wedded piper, rose to the occasion and entertained the whole bus with his playing. Our final call was to the little kirk of Insh, near Kincraig, which has a unique setting overlooking Loch Insh and the River Spey. The clouds had opened by this time and raincoats performed a great service to those who climbed up and through the kirkyard to the kirk itself. In an ancient font at one of the windows stands the old Celtic hand-bell of St. Adamnan. It has a dull ring, but not one of us dared to touch it as there is a curse on any stranger who rings it without cause. On one occasion the bell was stolen from the kirk and taken south to Perth. Its magical powers were displayed when it flew back of its own accord and was heard crying "Tom an Eonan! Tom an Eonan!" -- meaning Adamnan's Hill, which is the name of the mount on which Insh Kirk stands -- as it returned over Drummochter and down the Spey. The bell is now chained and padlocked to prevent its being again stolen.        We returned by way of Lynchat, passing Balavil, Raitts Cave and the Hill of the Witch of Laggan, but time and the weather were against us and we were unable to stop to visit these places.

       Notwithstanding the weather, we all agreed that we had a most interesting and entertaining tour of the east of Badenoch and of Rothiemurchus. A great deal of the success of the outing must be attributed to the efforts of the Chevalier J. Harvey Macpherson who organised it and led us throughout, and who shared with us some of his immense knowledge of the history, legends and customs of the district.

_____________

THE 1964 RALLY
       The 1964 Rally will be held during the third weekend of August, from Friday 14th to Sunday 16th August. The Annual General Meeting of the Association will be held in the Newtonmore Village Hall at noon on the morning of Saturday, August 15th, and it is hoped that the church service at the close of the Rally

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will again be conducted in St. Columba's Church, Kingussie. It has been proposed to alter the accustomed programme in some respects, and full details of events throughout the weekend will be issued later.

_______________

REVIEWS

THE HIGHLAND CLEARANCES

       A recent book has given a new account of the clearances in the Highlands during the last century: The Highland Clearances by John Prebble (Martin Secker & Warburg. 35/-- ). This account is not least valuable by reason of the very full bibliography which forms an appendix to the work and which, in some measure, compensates for the text's lack of recognition of sources from which quotations have been drawn. The book itself fails in many respects to 'come to life' as it is in many ways a scissors-and-paste compilation of contemporary accounts. Even so it has considerable value both for the serious student and for the ordinary reader.

       A major criticism of this book is that the author has apparently fallen into the common error of tracing the origins of the Clearances no further back than to the defeat of the Clans at Culloden. Culloden was indeed a horrible incident -- but it was no more than an incident and was, in many ways, no worse than many similar incidents in the long warfare between Gaelic-speaking Scotland and the south. Harlaw and Colkitto's campaign are other occurrences in the same war.

       In spite of the massacres that followed Culloden, the Gael still remained in possession of his homeland and, for all that the Government in Westminster cared, he might well have gone on living there. It was not the Government that drove him out, it was the work of fellow-Scots. England, though often blamed for the Clearances, admittedly did nothing to stop them, and ultimately it was the English who profited from them. The actual clearings, though, were the work of Scotsmen and formed a chapter in the tale of the longest and most bitter civil war in all the world's history -- a civil war which lasted for seven hundred years to the time of the Clearances and which even now, a century and a half later, may not be finished.

       It was Queen Margaret who first brought to Scotland the idea that the Gaelicspeaker was of a culture inferior to the Saxon. This idea was avidly seized upon by the southern Scots of her period and has continued to the present day. Its historic pages are not only written in the bloody incidents of the battlefield, but they are clear in the insidious spread of the belief that everything from the south is perfect culture and that anything from the north is barbaric. From this notion comes the twin curse of modem Scotland whose outward and visible sign is the affected "Morningside" and "Keelvinseede" perversions of speech among one class of the community, coupled with the insistence upon an English education for another class. It was when these ideas spread amongst the Chiefs and Chieftains of the clans that the final rot set in and, with his leaders' environment shifted to the south, the Gael lost his battle.

       It was a part of this undeclared civil war in Scotland that brought inspiration to the southern Scots who brought the Clearances to the Highlands. It was a similar part of the same war which gave them their opening when the Chiefs fell victim to those alien notions which their forefathers had so stoutly resisted. It was in pursuit of that same war that the Edinburgh lawyers acquitted the infamous Sellar, and even congratulated him on his acquittal. The shame of the Highlands is that willing accomplices were found amongst the Gaels who as constables, soldiers, and agents took delight in committing atrocities which are only comparable, in modern times, to those which were perpetrated under the Nazi regime.

       Not only has Mr. Prebble commenced his tale some seven centuries too late, he has also ended it more than a century too soon, in the middle of the last century. There is still another chapter to be written to show how the southern Scot who had evicted the Highlander was, in his turn, evicted by the English stockbroker in succession

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to the English wealthy aristocrat, so that the sheep-run was turned into deer forest and grouse moor, with the great shooting boxes occupied for a few days only in each year and with vast acreages given over to sterile desert.

       It is unfortunate, too, that this book limits itself to events north and west of the Caledonian Canal and that the author appears to consider that the Clearances came to an end in 1850. Here in Badenoch men still hold bitter memories of the clearances in Glen Banchor which took place at a far later date. People still talk in anger of the refusal to consider evidence placed before the Royal Commission which sat in Kingussie to consider the evictions. The ancient village of Crathie has, within living memory, vanished without a trace. Tucked behind the hills on the south side of the Spey the fields still preserve their shape amongst the encroaching heather, and farmhouses still have their roofs intact though nobody lives there not is allowed to live there.

[The Clearances also continued in the Isles as told in the story of the famous 'Skye Martyr', John Macpherson, in CD 43 (1991)].

       The expulsion of the Gael still goes merrily on as the invader from the south continues to buy up the land and to turn it to desert. The twin cries of "improvement" and "economic development" which were used to justify the evictions of the last century are still used today. And now another enemy has come upon the scene in the shape of the English businessman and the successful financier whose newest 'status symbol' is "my little place in the Highlands", to which he resorts for a few weeks of holiday in midsummer.

       Recently yet a further, an even stronger element has re-entered the fray. The needs of Defence demand, we are told, the complete sequestration of many thousands of acres in the north. The moors and the Pennines in England are sacred. Only in Scotland will the Government daze to exercise its dictatorial powers, for in places so remote from the centres of population there are few votes to be lost. Rockets are destroying an ancient culture in the Islands. Now the mainland is to share their fate.

       It is to be hoped that someone will take up the tale where Mr. Prebble has left off and will write the missing chapter down to the present day. It may well prove that there will be yet a further chapter to be written thereafter, for the Gael may yet return to his inheritance. The time available for him to do so, though, is getting perilously short.

       There remains one further criticism of this book -- minor, perhaps, but none the less to be noted. Gaelic quotations are mis-spelled and corrupted in several instances. This is unforgiveable in a book which sets itself out to deal with Highland affairs, and it remains a source of wonder that Gaelic is allowed so to be mangled in places where a similar quotation, made in Latin, would be scrupulously accurate in transcription.

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"CLUNY'S LAND"
       From The Oban Times -- "Cluny's Land and other Poems, a little book of unpretentious but deeply felt poems in which the writer expresses himself with telling and economical imagery. There is a nostalgic note which touches the heart in some of these sincere and clear verses, and a scorn too, when the author contrasts braver days with our present state. But there is also a joy in the natural beauty and a defiant hope 'that the ruined townships again may stand, and the Clan come home into Cluny's land".

       Apostles of the modem school which seems to cultivate impenetrable obscurity as its only virtue will find nothing for them in these poems; others will savour them with pleasure and fellow-feeling. The epigrams are not only sharp but barbed and stick in the mind. Published at the modest price of 3/6 from Clan House, Newtonmore, the profit goes to the Clan Macpherson House.

       It will interest readers to know that the Duke of Edinburgh has graciously been pleased to accept a copy "with great pleasure".

ORDE WINGATE
       Nothing is more distressing than to see petty men snapping and snarling round the heels of great men, denigrating them and sneering at them when they are no longer with us to reply. Orde Wingate and Sir Reginald Wingate, the former Sirdar,

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the redoubtable cousin who so inspired Orde, have not been spared such attacks. Those of us who had the great privilege of having known both these men will be doubly glad to welcome a book which gives a true and intimate appreciation of Orde Wingate, sparing none of his shortcomings but, at the same time, showing him for the towering genius that he was.

       Two people only are qualified to write intimately of Orde Wingate, and in There was a Man of Genius written by his mother-in-law, Mrs. Hay of Seaton, one of these has set her hand nobly to the task -- and nobly has she succeeded. We who knew Wingate were all agreed on one thing, that he was mad -- delightfully and wonderfully mad in that amazing madness which infects all who meet its owner with something of its own spirit and which inspires them either to emulation and to a deep love of its owner or else to a detestation of the man. Orde Wingate was such a person, for it was impossible to be neutral about him. One either loved and admired him or else one hated him. There were no half-measures. Such men are the great ones of this world.

       This book is written in the form of letters to Mrs. Hay's grandson, Orde Wingate's son. The fifteen letters comprising it take the reader from boyhood to manhood and to tragic death. They show him at the height of confidence and inspiration. They show him, too, in the depths of despair and humiliation. Mrs. Hay of Seaton has given us a portrait which could have been drawn only by someone who not only knew her subject intimately but who loved him and, at the same time, was conscious of his weaknesses no less than of his incredible strength. It is a very long time since we have been privileged to read anything so moving, so clear, so illuminating and above all so sincere as this book. Wingate is shown brilliantly in his true position as a Scotsman in the same tradition as those other great Scots of history who, with sword in one hand and with Bible in the other, found their inspiration in the Book to fight -- and to die -- for what they saw to be righteousness. General Gordon was just such another, so too was John Buchan.

       A review of this book, published recently in one of the greater London weekly journals, expresses the opinion that Orde Wingate takes his place amongst the great English eccentrics. Nothing could be further from the truth. Orde Wingate was a Scot of Scots in his dour determination, a Gael of Gaels in his knowledge of the heights of glory and the depths of despair. Neither was he an eccentric -- no more so than the Saints and the Prophets in whose footsteps he trod.

       There was a Man of Genius -- Letters to my Grandson, Orde Jonathan Wingate by Alice Ivy Hay. (Neville Spearman, Ltd., 21/-).

GAELIC BOOKS

       Edward Lhuyd in the Scottish Highlands by J. L. Campbell and Derick Thomson (O.U.P. 63/--) is one of the most important works to have been published on the Gaelic language and it is a great joy to have it brought back into print as magnificently as has now been done. John Lorne Campbell and Professor Thomson are, of course, the two men who are most capable of dealing with the subject of the notes made by the second Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum during his visit to Scotland from 1699 to 1700. Not only is this book of impeccable scholarship, both linguistically and historically, but it is also eminently readable by both layman and scholar. Some most intriguing problems are raised almost casually, regarding the possible existence still of various ancient Gaelic documents which were believed lost, and any would-be detective will find clues here which may well prompt him to make some most important discoveries such as the missing copies of inscriptions on the crosses destroyed on Iona, and the ancient Gaelic texts which were in the possession of Beaton the doctor. Fascinating, too, is the description of Lhuyd's meeting with Beaton, when the modem scholar made contact with the survivor of the most ancient school of learning in the world.

       Laithean Geala by Murchadh MacLeoid (Aberdeen Univ. 8/--) fulfils a longfelt want in supplying a Gaelic text for learners, couched in everyday language, using familiar words and dealing with the small, everyday events of daily life. Constructive exercises on the text follow each incident and, written by the county Supervisor

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of Gaelic for Inverness, the book will prove excellent not only for the children for whom it was designed, but also for the adult learner. Dictionaries not always being available, a vocabulary would have been a useful appendage and its omission is unfortunate. Unhappy, too, is the rendering of borrowed English words into Gaelic phonetics -- aidhs-criom for 'ice-cream' and lof for 'loaf' are cases in point. These, however, are minor criticisms. The book is, indeed, worthy of great praise.

       An Dubh is an Gorm by Iain Mac a' Ghobhainn (Aberdeen Univ. 10/-) is a new Gaelic paper-back containing pleasantly told tales in the modern idiom. It is much to be recommended, not only for the Gaelic-speaker who will, undoubtedly enjoy it, but also for the learner who is seeking to improve his colloquial knowledge of the language.

       Bardachd Mhurchaidh a' Cheisdeir (John Grant, 7/6) is a new collection of the poetic works of Murdo the Catechist which deserves a place in every Highland home. Murdo was a great character and tales of him will continue to be told for as long as people continue to sing his great song in praise of Lewis, Eilean an Fhraoich -- and this will be for many years to come. It is a joy to welcome this collection of his songs and hymns in which his whole personality shines, for he was gentle and yet strong, patient and charitable yet, at the same time, capable of the bitterest anger against injustice- Prefaced with an introduction in English, the publishers are to be commended for making this work available at so reasonable a price.

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NEAR AND FAR

       THE CHIEF. Clansmen everywhere will be distressed to learn that the Chief has been admitted to hospital in Australia, where he is lying seriously ill. He is unable to receive any correspondence. All will join in hopes for his recovery.

       THE U.S.A. Macphersons will be interested in hearing of the McPherson Hospital in Durham, North Carolina, which was founded by Dr. Samuel Dace McPherson in 1926 and continues as one of the leading American hospitals, specialising in diseases of the eye, ear, nose and throat, under the direction of the founder's son. This branch of the Clan has been settled in North Carolina for about 200 years. It is interesting to note that those in that particular part of the State, which is heavily populated by people of Scottish extraction, have dropped the "a" from the Mac of their names, whilst those in the Eastern part of the State have retained it.

       CANADA. The Hon. Campbell Macpherson, until recently Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland, has been awarded the degree of Doctor of Laws, honoris causa, by the Memorial University of Newfoundland.

       CANADA. Claudia McPherson, from Manitoba, achieved the distinction of being the youngest person ever to swim the English Channel. Aged only 17 years 4 months, she performed this feat at the end of July and landed at Folkestone after more than 17 hours in the water, swimming a total distance of more than 40 miles and after meeting two shoals of stinging jellyfish and, at the finish, choppy seas and high winds. This was her second attempt at the crossing.

       BADENOCH. The Prince of Lippe has conferred upon Chevr. J. Harvey Macpherson the rank of Commander in his Princely House Order, The Venerable Order of the Rose of Lippe. This is an international Order of Chivalry which devotes itself to the well-being of refugees.

       W. OF SCOTLAND. Mr. Robert McPherson, formerly head of Scottish Television's educational and religious broadcasts, has been appointed head of the schools' broadcasts section of Associated-Rediffusion. Mr. McPherson, who was educated at Wishaw High School and Glasgow University, has been broadcasting since 1959. Previously he held teaching posts in Glasgow and in Fife.

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       EUROPE. An 18-year-old Canadian, Don McPherson competed for a world championship in free skating at the Dolomite village of Cortina d'Ampezzo. Right at the beginning he took a bad fall after a wonderful high-leaping triple pirouette. Notwithstanding this he recovered to give a magnificent display of almost impeccable skating and finished as the world champion with a total of 2,219 points over the runner-up's 2,214. He aims now to conquer the world in the Winter Olympic Sports of 1964, to be held in Austria.

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REPORTS FROM THE BRANCHES

NOT INCLUDED

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REPORTS FROM THE BRANCHES

NOT INCLUDED

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OBITUARIES

EVA HELEN LOUISA MACPHERSON, NEWTONMORE
       We regret to announce the death on Wednesday, 21st August, after a short illness, of Miss Eva Helen Louisa Macpherson who was the youngest daughter and the last surviving member of the family of the late Colonel Lachlan Macpherson of Glentruim. She was a most kindly lady, with a vast knowledge of the Clan's history and of the legends attached to our country. At the age of eighty, her memory of old days and old ways was phenomenal, and she will be sadly missed as one of the best loved and most kenspeckle figures of Badenoch. A funeral service was held in St. Bride's Church, Newtonmore, and was attended by a widely representative congregation from all walks of life. Thereafter interment was private at the family ]air in Glentruim.

HON. HAROLD MACPHERSON, NEWFOUNDLAND
       Hon. Harold Macpherson, who died in St. Johns at the age of 78, was the younger brother of Dr. Cluny Macpherson, Hon. President of the Canadian Branch, and the uncle of the Editor. He was for long a member of the Newfoundland Upper House in the Government prior to the Dominion's incorporation as a Province of Canada, and he was one of the only two surviving members of that body. Very prominent in the farming and the business life of Newfoundland, Mr. Macpherson won world-wide fame for his maintenance of the noble breed of Newfoundland dogs and it was one of his dogs which figured on the postage stamps of the country. He was one of the kindest and gentlest of men, and his generosity and philanthropy were great and far-reaching.

Miss THOMASINA MACPHERSON
Newtonmore (Badenoch Branch)

Mm JEAN MACPHERSON
Invernahavon, Newtonmore

DUNCAN MACPHERSON
85 St. Ann's Hill, London, S.W.18

MRS. ANNIE BLUE
Peacehaven, Miller Street, Invercargill, New Zealand

MRS. MYRTLES. MACPHERSON
1215 MacIntosh St., Regina, Sask., Canada

WILLIAM A. MACPHERSON
7 Lady Road, Edinburgh, 9

Miss JOAN D. C. McPHERSON
Queensberry Lodge, Edinburgh

JOHN MACPHERSON
3 John Street, Edinburgh, 15

J0HN McPHERSON
5a Chalmers Crescent, Edinburgh, 9

DOUGLAS GORDON MACPHERSON, CANADA

       We regret to announce the sudden passing in December 1963 of Douglas Gordon Macpherson of Montreal, Quebec, an Hon. President of the Canadian Branch of the Association for many years. Douglas Gordon was a cadet of the House of Breakachie and was appointed "Commander of the Clan in Canada" by Ewen George Macpherson Of Cluny. He will be greatly missed by the Canadian Branch and we extend our sympathy to his family.

We, extend our sympathy to their families on behalf of the Clan Association.

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BIRTHS

On 15th July, 1963, Mr. and Mrs. G. S. Macpherson, Yarrow Dene Hotel, North Berwick -- (SON).

On 10th September, 1963, Mr. and Mrs. A. Adamson, 34 Haymarket Terrace, Edinburgh, 12 -- (DAUGHTER).

On 27th November, 1963, Mr. and Mrs. G. Macpherson, Glenogle, Burdiehouse Road, Edinburgh -- (SON).

A CLAN WEDDING

       Ian Pearson, Honorary Piper of the English Branch of the Association, and Miss Valerie McLauchlan, daughter of the late W. H. McLauchlan of Edinburgh, were married on Saturday, 10th August, 1963, at the Church of St. Benedict, Ealing Abbey, London. The best man was Mr. Malcolm. Campbell and the piper was Mr. John LoveSymonds.

       The reception was held in the Park Royal Hotel and toasts were given by Mr. Dennis Dix, who gave away the bride, by the best man and by the bridegroom. At one stage in the proceedings, Pipe-major R. Hill, late of the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, toasted the bride and bridegroom in Gaelic and, to the surprise of the guests and the consternation of the management, he gave Highland Honours to his toast by dashing his glass against the wall in the traditional manner. The Pipe-major then played for Scottish country dances and for a demonstration of Highland dancing given by the Misses Coleen Hutchinson and Janet Cook.

       Finally, both pipers led the bridal car from the hotel entrance, across Western Avenue, ignoring the heavy traffic, to send the newly-wed couple off northwards to honeymoon in Badenoch, where they interrupted their tour to attend the Clan Rally, and in the Western Highlands.

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Roll of Members

       The Deputy Hon. Secretary holds a number of rolls showing the names and addresses of all Members of the Clan Macpherson Association. These are available to Members who wish to obtain them, on application to the Clan House at Newtonmore, enclosing postage, please.        As supplies of this Roll are limited, early application is recommended.

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CMA INCOME AND EXPENDITURE ACCOUNT FOR
YEAR ENDING 31st DECEMBER 1962

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BALANCE SHEET AS OF 31ST DECEMBER 1962

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MEMBERSHIP AS AT 15th DECEBER 1963

NOTICES
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Back Cover Ad

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