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CONTENTS
                                           
  EDITORIAL        4
   1961 NOVA SCOTIA GAELIC MOD     5
   AN OLD HIGHLAND CUSTOM     7
   THREE MEN OF MOIDART    10
   A SCOT IN NOVA SCOTIA    11
   A DIABOLICAL PLAN    14
   THE GAELIC COLLEGE    16
   WHY, INDEED?    17
   THE ARMS OF CLUNY MACPHERSON    18
   THE CLAN RALLY, 1961    20
   A SALUTE TO LIEUT. JAMES MACPHERSON    22
   LETTERS TO THE EDITOR    23
   DOCTOR JOHNSON AND JAMES MACPHERSON    24
   THE EMPTY GLENS    25
   OLD ST. COLUMBA BURIAL GROUND    26
   CLANSMAN OF THE YEAR    29
   ROYAL VISIT TO BADENOCH    30
   THE CLAN HOUSE STORY    31
   THE TANISTER'S TALE    33
   THE 1962 RALLY    33
   NEAR AND FAR    29
   REPORTS FROM BRANCHES    35
   OBITUARIES    41
   BALANCE SHEET    43
                                                                                   
Price to Non-Members, and for additional Copies. 7/6
                                                                                   
Contributioni and all Branch Reports for the 1963 Number should reach the Editor as early as possible and certainly not later than 1st December 1962.
                                                                                   
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CREAG DHUBH
                  
No. 14        NOVA SCOTIA NUMBER           1962

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   THE ANNUAL OF
THE CLAN MACPHERSON
ASSOCIATION

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CLAN MACPHERSON ASSOCIATION

_____________________

Hon. President
EWEN GEORGE MACPHERSON OF CLUNY MACPHERSON
Chief of the Clan

Hon. Vice-Presidents
Lt.-Col. A. K. MACPHERSON OF PITMAIN, M.V.O., D.L.
Senior Chieftain in the Clan
The Right Hon. LORD MACPHERSON OF DRUMOCHTER
Major NIALL M. S. MACPHERSON, M.A., M.P.
Lt.-Col. CLUNY MACPHERSON, C.M.G., M.D., F.R.C.S.
Councillor HUGH MACPHERSON, F.S.A. Scot

COUNCIL

Officers of the Association

Chairman
THE HON. J. GORDON MACPHERSON

Vice-Chairman
ALLAN G. MACPHERSON

Hon. Secretary
A. F. MACPHERSON, W.S., 16 Castle Street, Edinburgh,2.

Hon. Treasurer
KENNETH N. MCPHERSON, C.A., 62 Strathearn Road, Edinburgh 9.

Editor of Clan Annual
Major J. E. MACPHERSON

Registrar
Miss Christine Macpherson, M.A., West High Street, Kingussie

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BRANCH REPRESENTATIVES
                       

BADENOCHEx-Provost EVAN CATTANACH, Kingussie
NORTH OF SCOTLAND ALASTAIR W. MACPHERSON, The Park, Lhanbryde, Morayshire
MURDO MACPHERSON, 6 Telford Lane, Inverness
EAST OF SCOTLAND Robert MACPHERSON, M.B.E. 41 Dovecot Road, Corstorphine, Edinburgh, 12.
   GEORGE A. MACPHERSON, 1 Chesser Loan,
   Edinburgh, 11
WEST OF SCOTLAND DONALD MCPHERSON, 20 Ancaster Drive, Glasgow, W.2
HAMISH MACPHERSON, 1356 Pollokshaws Road, Glasgow, S.1
ENGLAND & WALES The Hon. J. GORDON MACPHERSON, Normans, Warley, Brentwood, Essex
Sir JOHN MACPHERSON, K.C.M.G., 141 Marsham Court, Westminster, London SW 1
CANADALt.-Col. CLUNY MACPHERSON, C.M.G., M.D., St John's, Newfoundland
LLOYD C. MACPHERSON, BSC, MS. IN ED., St Andrew's College, Aurora, Ont
SOUTHLAND, N.Z. E.M. MACPHERSON, 64 Louisa Street, Invercargill
U.S.A.    Mrs ALBERTA MACPHERSON-COSTELLO,
   371 East 21st Street, Brooklyn, New York
Hon. Organizing
Secretary
Capt. J. HARVEY MACPHERSON, Clan House, Newtonmore
Curator. Capt. J. MACDONALD, O.B.E. Clan House, Newtonmore
Senior PiperANGUS MACPHERSON, Inveran, Sutherland
Junior Piper DONALD MACPHERSON, Alexandria, Dunbartonshire
Hon. AuditorVacant

      The Council appeals to members to support the Annual by contributing articles of historical, genealogical, or topographical interest, and by forwarding news of themselves and other clanmen, honours, appointments, etc. Photographs, prints, etc., of places or people and 'Letters to the Editor' on matters of Clan interst are also welcome. All communications should be addressed to the Editor at Clan macpherson House, Newtonmore, Inverness-shire.

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EDITORIAL

      The New Scotland honours the Old by appointing a Macpherson Day at its Festival and inviting the clan to join in its celebrations. All over the world Celtic revivals are taking place. Highland societies are being formed, the clans are getting together again, Highland dress and Highland culture are coming back into their own, but among them all, the revival at St. Ann's is outstanding. The President tells of its origin, and of the spirit which set up the Gaelic College and keeps it vigorously alive with its many students of the Celtic culture and crafts. All honour to its founders and long may it flourish.

      We note the College includes high in its list the very ancient craft of weaving. In the first volume of that authoritative symposium The European Inheritance, we are told in a chapter on the Celts that in the intervals between invading Greece, establishing the biblical Galatia, occupying Gaul, and sacking Rome, the Celts had established many prosperous industries, and especially a flourishing textile industry, which they carried with them to Britain about 500 B.C. Before 200 A.D. wool from the Western Isles of Scotland was being exported to the Roman markets. Apparently even at that early date something similar to Harris tweed had become the fashion in Rome, and at least one of our honorary vice-presidents will note with interest how laudably export-minded they were in those days.

      We are already getting very far from the always somewhat incredible woad-coloured warriors of the school history books, but the professor of archaeology at Durham University takes us even further when he says that Hadrian's Wall was built, not to keep out the Picts and Scots, but for economic reasons, the gateways being used partly as customs posts. The same professor says that when the Wall was built the Picts had not only not then arrived in Scotland, but would not arrive for another two hundred years, and the Scots were still in Ireland. On the other hand, Professor Gordon Childe says that the Celts having overrun Europe, including Britain, had reached the Orkneys by 43 A.D.

      To turn to more recent history, A.F. Macpherson has unearthed a diabolical plan for the destruction of our whole clan. It was a clever scheme, perhaps even more clever than its author knew, as it is known that a number of broadswords, which had not been surrendered, were buried under heaps of stones in certain places known only to a few trusted clansmen, against just such an emergency as Wolfe foresaw, for the attacking and destroying of any troops holding Cluny if he were captured. If Wolfe's plan had succeeded, three quarters of all the Macphersons now living, as well as the three preceding generations, would never have seen the light of day. Fortunately, that "famous man", as Wolfe calls him, remained "a cunning and resolute fellow" to the end and by outwitting Wolfe saved his clan from destruction.

      Recent research has produced a possible explanation for Dr. Johnson's hitherto somewhat inexplicable personal animosity to James Macpherson and for his vindictive attacks. It involves two remarkable eighteenth century Scots, and more remarkable still, perhaps, Dundee Grammar School.

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THE 1961 NOVA SCOTIA GAELIC MOD
by MRS. MARGARET MACPHERSON HAMBLETON

      The 23rd Annual Nova Scotia Gaelic Mod was held on August 3rd-8th, 1961, in the beautiful surroundings of the Gaelic College at St. Ann's, N.S. Lord Macpherson of Drumochter, representing our Chief, opened the Mod and delivered the main address on Clan Macpherson Day, August 4th. The events, which include piping and dancing as well as singing, are held outdoors whenever possible, and the magnificent natural background of the green wooded Cape Breton hills, and the blue Bras d'Or Lakes contribute much to the thrill of the occasion. Nova Scotia is one of the few parts of the world where Gaelic may still be heard, and it was with the aim of fostering the old Gaelic and Highland traditions that the College was established. Each year a different Clan is honoured by an invitation to its Chief to open the Mod and preside over the events, and in 1961 the Clan Macpherson was selected as the honoured Clan.

      Friday, August 4th, was the big day for the Clan when Macphersons and septs from Canada and the United States gathered to welcome Lord and Lady Macpherson. It was thrilling to see so much Macpherson tartan in evidence as the crowds assembled for the opening event of the day, which was the procession from the Gaelic College to the Mod platform. The parade was led by two pipe bands; the Caledonian Society of Restigouche Band and the MacDougall Girls' Pipe Band of Glace Bay. Next came five young kilted standardbearers carrying the banners of Lord Macpherson, Dr. Cluny Macpherson, Rev. A. Gordon Macpherson, Lloyd C. MacPherson and a Green Banner displaying the badge of the Association. Behind the banners marched the clansmen, headed by Lord and Lady Macpherson, Dr. Cluny Macpherson, Rev. A. Gordon Macpherson, Lloyd C. MacPherson, Mr. and Mrs. R. G. M. Macpherson, Mr. and Mrs. James N. McPherson, Murray Macpherson, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Hamblet0r), Dr. and Mrs. J. J. Macpherson, Claude Richardson, Mrs. Gladys Porter, Alan G. Macpherson, Rev. D. A. Gordon MacLennan, Chairman of the Mod Committee, and Rev. A. W. R. MacKenzie, President and Executive Director of the Gaelic College. The banners and kilts made a brave sight and many camera shutters clicked as the procession wound over the hillside and down to the platform.

      After selections by the two pipe bands, the proceedings were opened by Dr. MacLennan, who extended a cordial welcome and then called upon Rev. A. W. R. MacKenzie to introduce the day's programme. A Gaelic greeting was also given by Rev. A. D. MacDonald. Dr. MacLennan then introduced R. Gordon M. Macpherson, Hon. Secretary of the Canadian Branch, who assumed his duties as Chairman for the Day. Gordon called upon Dr. Cluny Macpherson, Hon. President of the Branch, to declare Clan Macpherson Day officially open, and then asked Lloyd C. MacPherson, Chairman of the Canadian Branch, to introduce Lord Macpherson to the gathering.

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      "The Macpherson Clan," said Lord Macpherson, "is the best and greatest Clan in the whole world." After an effective pause he added, " If you don't believe me, just ask any Macpherson. It is a peculiarity of Scottish clans that, no matter what the name may be, each member believes his own to be the best and greatest." Lord Macpherson continued by outlining the history of the Clan lands in Badenoch. "I am particularly happy," he went on to say, "to tell you of the progress our Clan has made in recent years. An 11 acre piece of the land formerly occupied by Macphersons has been purchased by the Clan Association, along with a Museum where the relics and heirlooms of the Clan may be seen. We have in Badenoch a bit of land that is forever Macpherson country."

      "Funds have also been raised," he said, " for the upkeep of the cemetery in which Macpherson forebears of centuries past have been buried. Every Macpherson living can trace his ancestry to that part of Scotland. Be sure to visit Badenoch next time you come home." Expressing his great admiration and loyality for Queen Elizabeth, Lord Macpherson said that the old Jacobite song, " Will ye no, come back again?", had been answered by the birth of her son, Prince Charles. " We now have a Bonnie Prince Charlie again !" In closing he urged all Macphersons and septs to become members of the Clan Association in order to foster a closer relationship with one another. He said, " Neither migration nor absence has weakened the ties which bind Macphersons to their homeland and these ties are especially strong in Canada and New Zealand." Lord Macpherson's address was enthusiastically received by the large crowd.

      Mrs. Gladys Porter, M.L.A., called upon to introduce Lady Macpherson, said she had been asked what she was doing at the Clan gathering. " I explained that my mother was Christena Mary Joanna Macpherson, and was born at St. Ann's. I have known," she continued, "the lovely Lady Macpherson but a few hours, but I know she is a woman of great wisdom and good judgment to have married a Macpherson." In a brief but delightful address, Lady Macpherson said, " I am very happy to be with my own folk. The likeness of this country to Scotland becomes clearer to me all the time. What a bonny place this is with its lovely hills and lakes. And all the Christmas trees ! I should love to be here when the first snow falls, for then it must seem like a fairyland."

      Rev. A. W. R. MacKenzie presented Lady Macpherson with a Hunting Macpherson tartan rug, handwoven at the Gaelic College Crafts Centre. Finally, James N. MacPherson, Regional Chairman for Montreal, expressed the appreciation of the Clan to the Mod Committee for the invitation to be present. At this point in the proceedings, the rain, which had been threatening for some time, started to come down in earnest and a hurried adjournment was made to the Gaelic College building where luncheon was served, followed by a reception for Lord and Lady Macpherson.

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      In the afternoon, Lloyd MacPherson introduced to the assembled clansmen, Alan G. Macpherson, Historian of the Canadian Branch and a Professor at the University of Rochester, U.S.A., who explained that he had drawn up a "General Band of Friendship among the Various Clans in Nova Scotia". "Contrary to popular opinion," he said, "the Highland Clans were not always fighting in the olden days." This particular document was based on a Band made in 1673 between the Macphersons and the Macdonalds. Alan Macpherson then called upon representatives of various Clans present to sign the Band on behalf of their respective Clans, and Dr. Cluny Macpherson led the signing on behalf of the, Clan Macpherson. By the end of the Mod week, it was hoped that representatives from at least 21 Clans would sign the Band, giving some indication of the strength of Highland ties in Nova Scotia. The Band is being presented to the Gaelic College for preservation in their archives.

      On Sunday, August 6th, a special Church Service was held at the Gaelic College and conducted in both Gaelic and English. The English sermon was delivered by the Hon. Chaplain of the Canadian Branch, Rev. Dr. A. Gordon Macpherson, a native of Cape Breton, and the Scripture Lesson was read by Lord Macpherson.

      All who were present at the Mod agreed that these few days of companionship had been a most enjoyable experience and the opportunity given to Clansmen to meet their fellow Clansmen from far distant places was deeply appreciated. Such events as this, where old friendships are revived and new ones are made, are truly in the spirit of the Clan Gathering of old.

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THE CANADIAN BRANCH REVIVES AN OLD HIGHLAND CUSTOM
by ALAN G. MACPHERSON

      The Canadian Branch of the Clan Macpherson Association was responsible for the revival of an old Highland custom at the Cape Breton Mod at St. Ann's. In a half-finished, sweet-smelling log cabin on the campus of the Gaelic College at St. Ann's, in which future generations of young Nova Scotians will learn to play the pipes, weave the tartan, and speak the Gaelic, leading Canadian Macphersons and men representing almost every clan from the Scottish Highlands signed an old-fashioned General Band of Friendship and revived a custom not practiced since the last Jacobite Rising.

      Clan Macpherson Day, the 4th August, 1961, was a day of golden clouds and blue sea set against the dark green forests of the Cape Breton coasts. But the crowd attending the Mod, which had been listening to Lord Macpherson speak on behalf of Ewen Macpherson of Cluny, the absent chief of the clan, and of the whole Clan Association scattered round the planet, had been driven indoors by a smart Cape Breton squall. Thus it was that the General Band was signed in

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a small building, constructed in traditional style, near the spot where some of the first Scottish settlers landed in Nova Scotia almost two hundred years ago.

      The first band signed by ceann-tighean or leading men of the Clan Macpherson, was the CLAN CHATTAN BAND, signed at Inverness on the 2nd May, 1543, intended to reinforce Mackintosh of Dunachtan's bond of manrent to the Earl of Huntly, from whom Mackintosh, the Macphersons, and other men of the loose confederation of clans that called itself Clan Chattan held their lands in part. On the 16th May, 1591, the CLAN FARSON'S BAND was signed at Huntly, confirming the clan's feudal allegiance to the Earl, but this time independently of Mackintosh. Finally, on the 14th April, 1609. Andrew Macpherson of Cluny and eight leading clansmen are recorded as signing the controversial TERMIT BAND that was intended to establish Mackintosh's hereditary authority as chief of the old tribal Clanchattan of prefeudal days over those clans that had been parts of the old tribe and were now part of his confederation. The Macphersons, as the senior clan of the Old Clanchattan, later repudiated Mackintosh's claim to chiefship, and later in the seventeenth century, Sir Aeneas Macpherson of Invereshie was able to claim that the signatures on the Termit Band had been proved forgeries in the Scottish Court of Session.

      However the case may be, these three bands were bands of manrent, in which the clans found themselves placed under feudal obligations to territorial barons such as the Earls of Huntly and Mackintosh himself. Such bands were illegal in the general law of Scotland, and died out in the early seventeenth century.

      Bands of Friendship among the clans, however, continued down to the 'Forty-Five Rising, and provided a means of forming economic and political alliances irrespective of feudal ties. In fact the clan leaders were gradually freeing themselves of the more direct feudal obligations and found themselves able to act more and more independentlypendently of their feudal superiors. This meant a strengthening of the clan system that was to carry it over into the eighteenth century, long after pure feudalism had died

      The first Band of Friendship involving the Macphersons, of which we have record, was the MUCHRACHE BAND, signed by leading men of the Macphersons and Grants on the 30th March, 1645, confirming the outstanding record of amity that has always existed between the two clans that have been neighbours in the Spey Valley for centuries. The Muchrache Band was signed in the disturbed conditions of Montrose's Rising during the Civil War, when the Spey was, a highway of war.

      On the 19th November, 1664, eight leaders of the Clan Macpherson joined with Mackintosh and other men of the Clan Chattan confederation in signing a CHATTAN BAND intended to form a war-party against Cameron of Lochiel. Andrew Macpherson of Cluny, who was not a party to this band, was instrumental in negotiating a peaceful settlement between Mackintosh and Cameron. A skilled diplomatist

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in Highland politics, he laid the basis for the later friendship with the Clan Cameron that bore such fruit in the last Jacobite Rising.

      In 1672, Duncan Macpherson of Cluny successfully contested Mackintosh's claim to hereditary chiefship over the Clan Macpherson and the other remnants of the Old Clanchattan. On the 20th October, 1673, the ANNAT BAND with the Macdonalds saw Lord Macdonald acknowledge Cluny as chief of the Old Clanchattan.

      The last band of friendship signed by the Macphersons was undoubtedly the most interesting of all. In the gay summer of 1742, amid the festivities of Ewen Macpherson of Cluny's wedding to Janet Fraser, daughter of Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat, a secret band of friendship was signed by a great number of Macphersons, Camerons and Frasers at Beaufort Castle. Signings were spread over three months, occurring on the 19th April, 17th June, and 7th July. It was partly upon the basis of this band that Cluny kept in close touch with Lovat during the first few months of the Rising in 1745, and attempted to restrain Lochiel in his commitment to join the rash Young Person, Prince Charles Edward Stuart, in his unauthorised attempt to overthrow the Whig oligarchy and the Hanoverian succession. The terms of the Band were used later to engineer the capture of Cluny by his cousins, the Camerons of Lochiel, and to persuade him to commit himself to the Rising. During the English campaign Cluny's and Lochiel's regiments were brigaded together on the long march to Derby and back. The missing Frasers were finally persuaded to march south to join the Jacobite army by a vigorous letter sent by Lochiel and Cluny to Lord Lovat invoking the Band. The Band culminated in the successful charge of the clans at Falkirk on the 17th January, 1746, in which the three allied clans distinguished themselves. Innumerable other details could be provided to show that even when the three clans were involved in missions in different parts of the Highlands during the Highland campaign of 1746 their leaders took a great interest in the doings of the others. The dying embers of the Rising were still glowing a month after Culloden, kept alive by the three chiefs of the Central Highland allies.

      The General Band signed at St. Ann's in Cape Breton on the 4th August, 1961, was inspired by the earlier efforts of the Highland clans to preserve peace among themselves in a warring world. Dr. Cluny Macpherson, the stalwart Honorary President of the Canadian Branch, signed the band for our Clan, and was followed by a score of gentlemen in kilts, city suits, clerical garb and bush shirts, representative of their several clans in Nova Scotia. Later the band was opened to general signing, and Lord Macpherson led a throng of clansmen to the table.       The document that follows was based upon the 1673 Band with the Macdonalds and the Arbitration Band signed among the Macphersons at Clune in Badenoch in 1722 (see Creag Dhuhh No. 5, 1953). It was explained to the people at St. Ann's by the present writer and

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was read in ringing tones by Lloyd C. MacPherson, Chairman of the Canadian Branch and a native Nova Scotian. The Band was drawn up and decorated by Gordon Macpherson of Toronto and London, Ontario, secretary of the Branch, and now lies in the custody of the Gaelic College at St. Ann's.

A GENERAL BAND OF FRIENDSHIP among the various clans in Nova Scotia

Signed by representatives of the clans at the GAELIC COLLEGE, ST. ANN'S, CAPE BRETON ISLAND, on the FOURTH DAY of AUGUST, NINETEEN SIXTY ONE.

WE, the under-subscribers, as leading gentlemen of our respective clans, do hereby present ourselves to take burden upon ourselves, each one for his own name and clan;

FORASMUCH as we, having in mind the divided and unhappy state of the world at the present time, do seriously consider the ancient love, mutual, friendship, kindness and good neighbourhood that have been observed and inviolably kept ,among our predecessors, both in Scotland and in Nova Scotia, during many hundreds of years past,

AND as we do understand that policy, civility and good-will oblige us and our fellow clansmen to pursue and observe the same in all time coming : THEREFORE, we, taking burden upon ourselves for all of our names and clans, do swear that we shall behave towards one another as brethren, maintaining, supporting, and defending one another's interests, not encroaching, but on the contrary, behaving to one another in brotherly love and unity in all matters that are honourable.

AND in witness whereof we have subscribed our hands and signatures to this Band (written by Alan G. Macpherson, of Edinburgh and Rochester, N.Y) this fourth day of August, Nineteen Sixty One.

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THREE MEN OF MOIDART

      We noticed the little cairn, about half-a-mile away across the pasture-land, as we were driving along the road which follows the north shore of Nova Scotia. "Let's go over and investigate," said my husband, and, agreeing, I asked, "What's the name of this place anyway?" Arthur looked at the map. " Well, we have just passed Lismore and Knoydart," he replied, "and we haven't yet reached Arisaig, so it must be Moidart." To which I replied, "Something tells me there have been a few Scots in this district at some time or another."

      We took the inviting path leading to the cairn. It was a lovely autumn day. The little farms along the road looked very neat and the Woods on the hills above them were not yet showing the glorious fall reds and yellows which were soon to come. As we approached the cairn, I we noticed that it stood about 12 feet high above a square concrete base, and was mostly built of the local stone. There were, however, about a dozen whitish stones of a different composition inserted in the form of a cross above the inscription. We moved closer and read the following:
           "To the memory of Angus MacDonald, Hugh MacDonald, John MacPherson, soldiers of Prince Charlie. They fought for Scotland in the Clanranald regiment at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Born in Moidart, Scotland, 1712-16, came to Moidart, N.S., 1790-91, buried here 1802-10.

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                                                       'Let them tear our bleeding bosoms,
                                                        Let them drain our dearest veins,
                                                        In our hearts is Charlie, Charlie
                                                        While a drop of blood remains'."

      Imagine," I said, "one of my own Macpherson clansmen being buried here, and a soldier of Prince Charlie too." Arthur replied, "I think I remember reading something about this cairn in the local paper recently. We'll look it up when we go home." Later that evening we found the history of the cairn, told by Roland H. Sherwood in the New Glasgow Free Lance, and we feel that we cannot do better than tell the story as it appeared in Mr. Sherwood's article :            "The memorial was erected in 1938, by the people of the parishes of Lismore and Arisaig, and was largely due to the enthusiastic labours of the late Col. Randall MacDonald, M.D., and a group of Highland friends. According to local information, the bodies of the three soldiers lie beneath the cairn, which incorporates stones from the battlefield of Culloden, gathered and forwarded to Nova Scotia from Scotland by friends of the builders. Many of those who helped finance the erection of the cairn were descendants of those who fought "on the right side" from Flodden to Culloden. As one stands and reads the inscription on the cairn that overlooks the sea, the very words bring up the picture of the three men whom the monument honours. Three of the fiery Highland soldiers who fought for Scotland and Prince Charlie, came to this section of Nova Scotia, bringing the name of their birthplace in Old Scotland to this new land, and leaving with its people a bit of the bitter history of the old land, and an undying love of Scottish lore and traditions."
                                                                                           MARGARET MACPHERSON HAMBLETON

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THE SCOT IN NOVA SCOTIA
by LLOYD C. MACPHERSON
      The end of the French regime in North America opened an opportunity for many Scots to emigrate to the New World. For half a century official policy and private enterprise combined to bring many immigrants to the Crown Colony of Nova Scotia, though of course it had had a much earlier connection with the Scottish Crown when Sit William Alexander received a charter for the territory in 1621.

      The Scottish settlements in Nova Scotia were largely directed toward the northern part of the Province and almost all of Cape Breton Island as well as the mainland counties of Pictou, Antigonish and Guysborough obtained the strong stream of Scots settlers whose descendants stiff people the area. To the people of Pictou County the coming of the ship Hector in 1773 with thirty-three Scots families comprising about two hundred people represents the beginning of the true development of that county. Following the end of the American war in 1783, men of two Scots regiments received extensive land grants. For the next half century or so, almost every year found

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some new shipload of Scots settlers coming with high hopes to try their fortunes in the New Scotland. Many were men who had fought for Prince Charles Edward at Culloden -- men who found it difficult to "humbly petition" the sovereign of the House of Hanover for the grants of land which each needed if he were to make his own way in the new land. The list of those to whom land grants were made was largely composed of Scots. In Pictou County the names Campbell, Fraser, Macdonald, MacGregor, MacIntosh and MacPherson appear time after time in the early records of the settlers of the county. Indeed, to such an extent is this still true that the Pictou Registry of Deeds does not list any names under "Mac or Mc" but under the initial of the family part of the surname.

      The settlement of the remaining northern counties of the Province followed a similar pattern to that of Pictou County. The disbanding of Highland regiments was usually followed by the granting of land; the acreage being determined on the basis of rank and, probably, influence. Men usually received one hundred acres, with officers receiving grants of two hundred and fifty to one thousand acres.

      For all the settlers the new land presented real problems. Foremost was the forest which covered the land, in most cases to the water's edge. The early settlers were not axemen (the Highlands had long lost their forests) and the task of clearing acres by hand was a very difficult one. Each family endured what must have been extreme hardship in the early years, but gradually they developed an economy which, if not luxurious, at least represented an advance over their former state as tenants of a landlord.

      One trait which they brought with them was a respect for, indeed a longing for, education, and very early in the history of the area we find provision for schools with each family making its contribution to the upkeep of the institution. Out of these early schools there grew up an institution whose name is still to be reckoned with in Nova Scotia's history -- Pictou Academy. Barred from attending the King's College (an Anglican Foundation) by the tests of conscience required by that institution, the Scots of Pictou County developed their own centre of learning. The opposition of the Anglican Bishop of Nova Scotia prevented it from obtaining a University Charter but, except for the granting of degrees, Pictou Academy served as the educational centre for the Scottish settlement.

      The Pictou settlement was made by Scots of the Church of Scotland while the settlement in Antigonish County was Roman Catholic. Members of the Roman Catholic community early moved to the West Coast of Cape Breton, while the settlement in the North and Eastern portion of that Island was of the Reformed Faith. Both groups hold fast to their Scottish traditions and, to this day, retain a characteristic pride in their ancestry.

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      In the above map you will see Cape Breton Island as the northern part of the province of Nova Scotia. The projection to the north is Cape North and just east of it is a system of long parallel bays cutting deeply into the island. One of these is St. Ann's Bay and nestled along its shores is the farming community of St. Ann's. It is in this area, settled by Scots pioneers, that there exists the centre devoted to the instruction of the young in the Scottish tradition and the Gaelic language.

      To any who might expect to see a hall of learning cast on the lines of Edinburgh or St. Andrews University, the Gaelic College would come as a distinct shock, for its physical location is in a number of log cabins. But, as all true Scots know, the value of an institution of learning lies in the ancient tradition it represents and the spirit and devotion of its students-and St. Ann's has its full share of all three.

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A DIABOLICAL PLAN -- WOLFE AND CLUNY OF THE '45
by A. F. MACPHERSON

      In a note on page 305 of John Prebble's authoritative book Culloden, recently published by Secker & Warburg, he states that Major (later Gen.) Wolfe, while engaged in the suppression of the '45, evolved a plan which, if it had materialised, would have resulted in the destruction of the Macphersons and their lands. Mr. Prebble very kindly informed the writer of his authority for this interesting information viz., a letter from Gen. Wolfe then in Exeter to his friend, Captain Rickson stationed in the Highlands dated 7th March, 1755. This letter is part of manuscript correspondence between Wolfe and Rickson in the National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh, and the writer was therefore able to examine it and take excerpts.

      In the letter Wolfe passes some severe criticism of the High Command's policy at the commencement of the '45 and remarks that "such a succession of errors and such a strain of ill behaviour as the last Scotch war did produce can hardly I believe be matched in history. Our future annals will I hope be filled with more shining events." Wolfe expresses the view that the garrisons of the Forts should have been used to strike at the Jacobites immediately, and that an offensive strategy should have been adopted at once.

      The following is the portion of the letter referred to:
           " Mr. Mcpherson (i.e. Cluny) should have a couple of hundred men in his neighbourhood with orders to massacre the whole clan if they show the least symptom of Rebellion; they are a warlike Tribe and he's a cunning resolute fellow himself. They should be narrowly watched and the Party there should be well commanded.

      The Governor will have told you that I tried to take hold of that famous man with a very small detachment -- I gave the Sergt. orders in case he should succeed and was attacked by the Clan with a view to rescue their chief, to kill him instantly which I concluded would draw on the destruction of the Detachment and furnish me with a sufficient pretext (without waiting for any instructions) to march into their country ou j'aurais fait main basse sans misericorde et je l'aurais brule d'un bout a \ I'autre (where I would have made a clean sweep without mercy and I would have burnt it from one end to the other). Would you believe that I am so bloody? 'twas my real intention, and I hope such execution will be done upon the first that revolt to teach 'em their duty and keep the Highlands in awe. They are a people better governed by fear than favour."

      This shows a different side of Wolfe's character and it is strange to think that he owed much of his success at Quebec four years later to Fraser's Highlanders, in which regiment there was a large contingent of the Clan whose extirpation he contemplated during the '45 Rising. In fact it is said that the General died in the arms of John Macpherson one of the junior officers of that regiment.

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THE GAELIC COLLEGE OF CELTIC FOLK ARTS
NOVA SCOTIA'S MEMORIAL INSTITUTION
      The College was founded in 1939 as a memorial to the Cape Breton Island Highland Scottish Pioneers, and dedicated to the promotion and preservation of Celtic and Gaelic culture in Nova Scotia. The story of its origin which follows is written by the President and Executive Director, the Rev. Angus W. R. MacKenzie.

THE RE-BIRTH OF GAELIC CULTURE IN NOVA SCOTIA

      The establishment of the Gaelic College in 1939 set a fire on the hills and in the glens of Cape Breton that still burns brightly. Its inauguration started the development of a spontaneous, surging revival of Gaelic culture in Nova Scotia, which today continues with unabated vigour, not merely as a Gaelic language movement, but in a wider sense the present renaissance may be described as a veritable Celtic Culture Movement, embracing all the worthwhile arts and crafts of Gaelic Culture.

The Awakening
      Immediately on the establishment of the Institution the "mist on the mountain" was lifted and the death of the native Gaelic speakers' inferiority complex became evident, as he now proudly asserted, "I speak the Gaelic". This in itself was re-birth at the very roots, and the Cape Breton Gaelic speakers began to associate pioneer days with the spell of glamour and the heroic-not dwelling so much on the backwardness of those days, as heretofore. The birth of the College gave the language and culture a higher prestige, and the precious heritage of the Scottish Highlander was saved in Cape Breton for posterity.

      Time has shown that the awakening was more than a re-birth of mere interest-it was a revival of the cultural talents of the young people, who flocked to Gaelic College classes at St. Ann's from an over Nova Scotia, and, returning home talented in Gaelic song, Highland dancing, piping or drumming, helped to establish instruction classes and pipe bands in the home community. Highland dress and the pipes were top attractions with young people and parents alike, and hundreds of talented young people in Highland dress appeared almost overnight.

Achievement
      Between 1948 and 1961 over 2,200 students have received instruction in Gaelic and Gaelic singing at the College: 1,500 students have become proficient in Highland dancing, and over 300 girls and 100 boys have acquired a playing knowledge of the pipes. In Cape Breton alone there are more than five Junior Pipe Bands and more than 500 Cape Breton lassies own their own home-made Highland dress.

      The re-birth is here to stay-as is the Gaelic College, where, in the three terms, some one hundred boy and girl students are now receiving, continuously the year round, instruction in the worthwhile arts and crafts of the Celtic culture-and we hope will go on doing so till the end of time.

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WHY, INDEED ?
or
The Baptism o' Macpherson

Niall Macpherson, M.P., writes,

      "This poem records a very interesting piece of history. My uncle, James Ian Macpherson, later Lord Strathcarron, wanted his son, David, baptised in the crypt chapel of the Houses of Parliament. He maintained that the chapel was undenominational, not being a part of the Royal Palace of Westminster. The Rector of St. Margaret's, Westminster, however, claimed that the chapel was under his jurisdiction, and was C. of E. The discussion lasted some months, but eventually the verdict went in favour of my uncle -- the Lord Great Chamberlain ruled that the crypt was nondenominational. As a result any member of either House can be married there or have his son or daughter married or baptised there. My own daughter, Norah, was baptised there by the minister of Crown Court, the Rev. Joseph Moffett, O.B.E., D.D."

                                                                      'Phairson had a son,
                                                                      Blessings on the, laddie,
                                                                      May he grow a man
                                                                      As upright as his daddy
                                                                      'Phairson in his joy
                                                                      Sent abroad the summons
                                                                      "Come and see my boy
                                                                      Christened in the Commons."

                                                                       But, alackaday,
                                                                       Up rose an objector,
                                                                       Who sternly cried,
                                                                       "Nay Nay Am I not the Rector ?
                                                                       In the Commons crypt,
                                                                       Upon no occasion,
                                                                       May babe be named except
                                                                       By Priest of my Persuasion."

                                                                       'Phairson raised a dust,
                                                                       Loud for justice clamoured.
                                                                       Every true Scot must
                                                                       See the point well hammered.
                                                                       Why should the 'Phairson's son
                                                                       Be treated as an alien ?
                                                                       Or Auld Kirk stand down
                                                                       For Episcopalian ?

By courtesy of PUNCH circ. 1926

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THE ARMS OF CLUNY MACPHERSON by R. G. M. MACPHERSON F.R.S.A., F.S.A.SCOT.

      Much has been said already in the pages of this journal concerning the wildcat crest of the Chief of the Clan, but comparatively little has been written about Cluny Macpherson's Arms, of which the crest is merely a component. Many questions have been asked about the origin of the various heraldic charges within the arms as well as the meaning of the famous motto, and so perhaps a brief treatise will be of some interest.

      In 1672, the Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland was inaugurated and the Statute enacted "that whosoever made use of any arms or signs armorial should bring or send an account of these" and to matriculate them in the new Public Register. So it was that Duncan Macpherson of Cluny, 16th Chief, travelled to Edinburgh and petitioned the Lord Lyon to have his arms registered in accordance with the law. The arms were recorded in the Lyon Register on the 12th March, 1672, and were described as follows: Parted per fesse (divided horizontally) Or (gold) and Azure (blue), a lymphad or galley of the first (meaning of the first colour mentioned viz. gold) sails furled, oars in action, mast and tackling proper (in their natural colours), flags flying Gules (red); in the dexter (right hand side as you stand behind the shield) canton a hand couped (cut off at the wrist) holding a dagger point upwards and in the sinister (left) canton a cross crosslet fitchee (pointed) all of the third (meaning Gules or red). Above the shield is placed a helmet befitting his degree with a mantling Gules doubled Argent (silver) and on a wreath of the liveries is set for Crest a cat sejant (sitting) proper, and in an escrol over the same this Motto: "Touch not the cat but a glove". On a compartment below the shield are placed for Supporters, two Highlandmen in short tartan jackets and hose of the House of Cluny Macpherson, helmets on their heads, dirks at their left sides, and targets on their exterior arms, their thighs bare and their shirts tied between them. In this matriculation, dated 12th March, 1672, Cluny was designated as the "only and true representer of the ancient and honourable familie of Clanchattone".

      Six months later, the Privy Council, which was then engaged in calling upon the Chiefs for the peaceable conduct of their respective clans, ruled that Mackintosh and not Cluny was to be regarded as Chief of of Clan Chattan and that Cluny was only Chief of the Macphersons. On the 10th September, 1672, Sir Charles Erskine of Cambo, Bart., Lord Lyon King of Arms, issued an official declaration pronouncing Mackintosh "Chief of Clan Chattan" and the supporters to the Cluny arms were cancelled. For 200 years Cluny's arms were officially without supporters until, on the 23rd June, 1873, Lord Lyon Burnett restored them to "Old Cluny". The supporters that were returned to Cluny were identical to those that had been recorded in March 1672 for Duncan Macpherson of Cluny as Chief of Clan Chattan and are borne today by the present Chief of Clan Macpherson.

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      The wildcat crest seems to have been depicted on the original parchment as "erect", as shown in the illustration of the arms, and the blazon describes the crest wrongly, in my opinion, as simply "sejant". (For a more complete account of the crest, see Creag Dhubh No. 10, p.14). Sir Thomas Innes of Learney, present Lord Lyon, holds the view that the correct interpretation of the "cat sejant" is a cat with three feet on the ground and its left paw horizontally forward. While Lyon does not think that Cluny's crest should be depicted as "erect", he does agree that the cat was not intended to be simply "sejant", as the blazon states, with all four feet on the ground. The cat shown in our illustration is based upon two Lyon Court extracts, dated 1787 and 1873, as well as the crest in the Macpherson arms above the main doorway of Cluny Castle. The cat in this "erect" position has been the traditional crest as used by successive Macpherson Chiefs for over 250 years.

      The principal charge in the arms is the gold "lymphad" or galley. The galley certainly denotes a Western origin, possibly commemorating the landing of the Picts, while others hold that it represents the "Galley of Lorne". The galley is a common Scottish charge and may be found in the arms of many Highland Chiefs.

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      The red hand holding the dagger signifies the part played by the Clan in overthrowing the Cumins, the enemies of King Robert the Bruce. The red cross crosslet is said to represent either an ecclesiastical origin or to denote the descent from Gillicattan Mor, the Great Servant of St. Catan. Another view concerning the crosslet is that it could commemorate a pilgrimage to the Holy Land by Muriach or some other Chief.

      The two supporters, Highlandmen in short tartan jackets, have their shirts or leine chroich tied between their bare thighs in the manner of the fighting Highlander prepared for battle.

      The meaning of the famous Highland motto, "Touch not the cat but a glove", bears repeating. The motto was first recorded by Cluny Macpherson in 1672, followed by Mackintosh in 1679. It is interesting to note that the motto originally registered by Cluny and consistently used by all the Macpherson Chiefs, employs the spelling "BUT" and not "BOT" as most people imagine. "But" is another variant of the old spelling of the word which in broad Scots means "without". However, a number of armigerous Macpherson cadets use the spelling "Bot" as do the Mackintosh and McBain Chiefs. The meaning of the motto is "Touch not the cat when it is without a glove" or "Touch not the ungloved cat with claws exposed". It does not mean "Touch not the cat when you have no glove on your hand". The "glove" of the wildcat is the soft, underpart of his paw and, when assuming a war-like attitude, the paw is spread or "ungloved" revealing the very dangerous claws. In this position the cat is then "but a glove". The motto is a warning or caution to those who would be so imprudent as to engage in battle when the "Clan of the Wildcat" is "ungloved".

_____________

THE CLAN RALLY, 1961

      The Rally of 1961 opened with a ball in the Duke of Gordon Hotel in Kingussie on Friday, August l8th, when a company representative Of the Clan Association and its branches all over the world enjoyed an evening's dancing of Scottish dances interspersed with a few modem ones.

      On Saturday, August 19th, the business part of the rally began with a council meeting in the Clan House, followed by the Annual General Meeting of the Clan Association in the Newtonmore Village Hall. At this meeting an especial tribute was paid to the curator of the museum, Capt. J. Macdonald, O.B.E., whose enthusiasm and erudition have delighted the amazing total of 1,300 visitors to the Clan House and Museum since the "season" opened in the late spring. The Treasurer's Report showed the Association's finances to be in a healthy state. Membership showed an increase of forty over the year.

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      A tribute was paid to the untiring work done on behalf of the Association ever since its founding by Mr. A. Fraser Macpherson, W.S. of Edinburgh, whose enthusiasm and energy in the posts of Treasurer and later of Secretary have done so much towards ensuring the success of the Clan Association. It was now felt necessary, with the growth of the Association and its activities, to do something to ease the burden on his shoulders, and Capt. Harvey Macpherson, O.L., O.L.J., of Newtonmore, was appointed deputy Secretary with a place on the Clan Council.

      On the election of officers the Hon. Gordon Macpherson, J.P. was re-elected chairman, with Allan Macpherson of Inverness as Vice-Chairman. Other officers, apart from those mentioned: Kenneth Macpherson, C.A., of Edinburgh, Treasurer; and Miss Christine Macpherson of Kingussie, Registrar. Major J. E. Macpherson of London consented to act as editor of the journal for a further year, and a warm tribute was paid to all the work that he has done in producing the magazine in former years. A hearty welcome was extended to the Overseas Members, particularly those from Canada and New Zealand who had made the long journey to attend the Rally, and an especially warm greeting was given from the Chair, and endorsed by the meeting, to Lady Stewart Macpherson, "the mother of the Association".

      On the Saturday afternoon the clansmen divided into two parties. Miss Meta MacBean of the Badenoch Field Club conducted a party from Balavil House to Raitts Cave, and to the ancient village of Raitts on the hills above. Both of these places have an intimate connection with the clan history, and Miss MacBean had a fascinated and absorbed audience for her delightful account of the places they visited. The other party was conducted by car from Balavil to Ruthven, by Capt. Harvey Macpherson, and thence to Cluny Castle, where a very kind welcome and warm hospitality were offered by Capt. and Mrs. Lindsay; thence to Gaskmore, another old Macpherson house, where tea was provided by Mrs. Boswell Brown, herself a member of the Association. The return journey was made by way of Laggan, with a visit to Glentruim House, where the clansmen were welcomed by Mrs. Macpherson of Glentruim, who very kindly showed them some of the clan treasures preserved there.

      The evening was spent in the Duke of Gordon Hotel at a ceilidh attended by as large a company as has ever come together for an Association gathering there. Noteworthy was the number of Newtonmore people present. This occasioned a jocular remark from Councillor Hugh Macpherson, the Fear an Tigh, that he felt the time was coming when Newtonmore might make a take-over bid for Kingussie! Songs in Gaelic and in English, dancing and piping filled a most enjoyable evening, during the course of which a demonstration lesson was given of the dance "Lady Stewart Macpherson's Reel", which was composed by members of the East of Scotland Branch of the Clan Association. An enthusiastic reception was given to Capt. Macdonald, the curator

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of the museum, who deputised for Miss Thomasina Macpherson of Newtonmore by reading a poem composed by her father, a noted bard of former days. He then announced his pride at having recently been admitted an honorary member of the Badenoch Branch of the Association. Linda Sinclair danced, John Macrae and Alec Macintosh played a pipe and accordion duet, and Tom Cattanach, the Clan Bard, sang songs of his own composition. Other members of the Association contributed to an evening which will long be memorable to those who were present.

      The Rally closed on Sunday morning with the traditional church service in St. Columba's Church, Kingussie, conducted by Rev. D. Macpherson Douglas, B.D., of Roseburn, Edinburgh, who preached appropriately from the text "Where there is no vision the people perish." (Proverbs xxix, 18). The lessons were read by two overseas members of the Association, Mr. Finlay MacLean, formerly of Kingussie and now of Australia, and Mr. Donald F. Macpherson, who left Ardersier fifty years ago to live in Canada.

_____________

SALUTE TO LIEUTENANT JAMES. MACPHERSON
45th REGT., BADAJOS, APRIL 6th, 1812

                                                 When Hell-fire blazed in Badajos that night
                                                  He led his stormers, but their ladders failed.
                                                  Wounded and flung to earth, again he scaled
                                                  The battlements, and carried on the fight.

                                                  The Castle's ours ! Signal Lord Wellington!
                                                  He climbs the tower, hauls down the Tricolor,
                                                  And hoists instead his jacket splashed with gore.
                                                  The red coatee proclaims the Castle won !

                                                  Though eighteen-twelve to some may seem remote,
                                                  The Sherwood Foresters do not forget.
                                                  Each April sixth, when Badajos was won,
                                                  That day their flagstaff flies a scarlet coat.
                                                  Greeting a Corps d'elite, his clansmen yet
                                                  Are deeply conscious of the honour done.

Lieut. James Macpherson, 45th Regt. (1st Batt. The Sherwood Foresters), of the Glentruim family, led the "forlorn hope" on the Castle of Badajos and behaved with great gallantry. To show that the Castle had been captured, he hauled down the French flag and hoisted his jacket. An excellent account of his intrepidity is to he found in CREAG DHUBH for 1960

                                                                                                              M. B. H. RITCHIE
Craigdhu

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Clan Macpherson House Appeal Fund

Eleventh List of Subscribers

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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR

From Alan G. Macpherson, Genealogist-In-Chief

SIR,       I do not think that Seumas Ban (Creag Dhubh No. 13 p.5) was the son of Andrew Macpherson, brother of Lachlan of Nuide, but his grandson.

      The true genealogy should run thus, so far as I can piece it together:

      These dates seem reasonable to me : however, I am not sure whether it was Seumas' father, Andrew, or his mother, Helen, that was sibling to William the Purser. I have another note that suggests that there was a Ewan who was a grandfather of Seumas, and he could be Helen Macpherson's father. Anyway, I am sure that Andrew in Invertromie was not a brother of Old Lachlan of a Cluny but a generation later. That Seumas Ban was closely related to the Blairgowries, through either his father or his mother, is certain.

Yours, etc.
University of Rochester, N.Y., U.S.A.                                                          ALAN G. MACPHERSON.

***

NEW ZEALAND AND NYASALAND
SIR,
      You will be interested to know of the hospitality extended to us by members of the Southland, N.Z. Branch of the Association, during our weekend visit to Invercargill in May of this year (1961) whilst on vacation leave in New Zealand.

      We contacted the Hon. Secretary, Mr. Edward Macpherson, on the Saturday at the Scottish Hall and were entertained at his home that evening by his good lady and himself, where we also had the pleasure of meeting a former chairman of the Branch, Mr. Hector Macpherson.

      As it was our first visit to New Zealand, Mr. Hector took us in his car, on the Sunday, to see some of the beautiful lakes in that part of the South Island, and we were very sorry when we had to say farewell that evening to our fellow members of the Association after so short an acquaintance.

      Should, by any chance, some member of the Association be visiting or passing through this part of Central Africa, in the' shall we say, not too far distant future, we should welcome a call from him or her and attempt to show similar hospitality to that extended to us by the above-mentioned members of that far away branch of the Association.

Yours etc.,
c/o The Treasury, P.O. Box 36,                                                           GLADYS and IAN MACPHERSON.
Zomba, Nyasaland.

***

From R. G. M. Macpherson, Hon. Sec., Canada Branch
SIR,
      I read with great interest the article which appeared in last year's Creag Dhubh honouring "Sandy" Macpherson of the B.B.C. as "Clansman of the Year".

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      It may interest your readers to know that "the Presbyterian minister who lived next door", and used to tell Sandy and his friends about "his hair-raising experiences during the Louis Riel Rebellion" was my grandfather, the Rev. R. G. MacBeth, M.A., D.D, L.L.D. Dr. MacBeth was minister of the Presbyterian Church in Paris, Ontario, from 1904 to 1914.

Yours, etc.,
                                                                                                                              R. G. M. MACPHERSON

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DR. JOHNSON AND JAMES MACPHERSON -- THE PERSONAL CLASH
      Johnson and Macpherson had at least one thing in common. Boswell gives ample evidence of Johnson's kindness of heart, and many people have testified to Macpherson being one of the most generous of men. When he built his mansion of Balavil in his native Badenoch, he paid all the men he employed half as much again as they usually received. When a farmer who had befriended him in his early days had become his tenant, and came to pay his rent, Macpherson received him with the greatest courtesy and asked him to choose and enclose as much pasture land from the estate as he thought proper for a maintenance. The freehold of what he had chosen he gave to the farmer for life. Lastly, when a grateful government offered him the forfeited Cluny estates, he declined the offer and used all his influence to have them restored to his chief.

      Why then did two such men, each endowed with his full share of the milk of human kindness, clash so violently? At least part of the answer may lie in the story of two remarkable Scots whose lives for a moment impinged, with far-reaching results. The less fortunate of the two was one, William Lauder, who graduated M.A. at Edinburgh in 1695. His first misfortune, that we know of, was when he stopped a golf ball with his leg while watching a match on Bruntisfield Links, and owing to bad surgery the leg had to be amputated. Next he failed to get the chair of humanity at Edinburgh University, which he had applied for, and thirdly, he was turned down for the rectorship of Dundee Grammar School. Apparently that was the last straw, and he left his ungrateful country in 1762 for London, where he engaged in various literary activities, acquiring some slight reputation for scholarship. In magazine articles he had accused Milton of wholesale plagiarism in Paradise Lost, and later amplified the charges in a book in which he somehow got Dr. Johnson to take a great interest and eventually to write both a preface and a postscript for it.

      But Nemesis was at hand, in the shape of another Scot, one whose scholarship was far superior to that of both Johnson and Lauder. John Douglas, second son of Archibald Douglas, merchant, of Pittenweem, Fife, was born in 1721. He went to school at Dunbar, became an exhibitioner at Balliol, Bishop of Carlisle, Dean of Windsor, Fellow of the Royal Society and a trustee of the British Museum. He showed that the crucial alleged plagiarised passages in Masenius and Staphorstius had been interpolated, and were not in the originals. He made no little reputation out of his successful exposure of the trick : Goldsmith

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refers to him as "the scourge of impostors and terror of quacks". Lauder, completely discredited, emigrated to Barbadoes, where he started a grammar school which was not a success. He then started a huckster's shop and purchased an African slave woman to help him in the business, but died in pecuniary distress in 1771.

      Johnson was furious when he discovered he had been deceived, and in a way a man of his erudition should not have been deceived. The wound rankled, and when another Soot published a book in London, he was more than ready to proclaim him an impostor and his book a forgery.

      It may be to some extent an over-simplification, but one is tempted to ask, in all seriousness, if the unfortunate Lauder had been successful in obtaining the rectorship of Dundee Grammar School, would Macpherson's character ever have been impugned, or Scotland accused of 'a national conspiracy of falsehood'.
                                                                                                                              JAMES E. MACPHERSON

_________

THE EMPTY GLENS
                                                   Sad is my heart as I gaze on the glen,
                                                   To think of the time it was home to our clansmen.
                                                   Now it's deserted, forlorn and laid bare --
                                                   No sweet-scented peat-reek to greet you when there.

                                                   You still see the cairns where the homesteads stood,
                                                   The mark of the feering where folk grew their food,
                                                   The rowan tree planted to keep witches away,
                                                   The stream that provided spring water each day.

                                                   The hills and the rivers are there, still the same,
                                                   In the pools there are fish, on the hills there is game.
                                                   The lark and the lapwing return with the year,
                                                   All nature responding -- while men disappear.

                                                   The homes are now empty, the cause 'tis the same --
                                                   All through the Highlands you will find it the same
                                                   The lairds and the sportsmen the crofts they did clear;
                                                   They wanted the land for the grouse and red deer.

                                                   Now it is dawning on thinking men clear --
                                                   They took the dross, let the gold disappear.
                                                   To put it precisely-here's the position --
                                                   What is the value of a Highland Division?

                                                   Such men of endurance, unequalled in war,
                                                   The cream of our country, now scattered afar,
                                                   They heard, and did answer, our "darkest hour" cry,
                                                   For the glens of their fathers still willing to die.
                                                                                                                              TOM CATTANACH
                                                                                                                             The Bard of Newtonmore

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THE OLD ST. COLUMBA'S BURIAL GROUND AT KINGUSSIE
A REPORT BY THE CHAIRMAN
      The condition of the old St. Columba's Burial Ground has been a matter for concern to Members of the Clan and the Association for some time.

      A number of years ago, a fund was raised by prominent Clansmen and the Graveyard restored and put in good order. Unfortunately, since that date it has been left to deteriorate as the Kingussie Council are not responsible for either its maintenance or restoration.

      Over the past two years I have had considerable correspondence with the Town Clerk to try and persuade the Council to restore the Graveyard -- the most historic place in Kingussie -- to a proper state of repair and, after a great deal of negotiation, they agreed to put it into good order provided our Association would take over the maintenance.

      With the sanction and full approval of the Council I explained the position to a number of Members and asked for help, which was at once accorded, and I am pleased to say that we now have at our disposal a fund sufficient to cover the maintenance for some years to come. The following list is of those who contributed or signified their willingness to do so :--
The Rt. Hon. Lord Macpherson, Major Niall Macpherson, M.P., Lloyd d C. Macpherson, B.SC. (Canada), A. F. Macpherson, W.S., K. N. Macpherson, C.A., Sir John Macpherson, K.C.M.G., G. P. S. Macpherson, O.B.E., T.D., George A. Macpherson, Mrs. M. Y. Allen, Hon. J. G. Macpherson, J.P., Major J. E. Macpherson, A. G. Macpherson, M.A., Lt. Col. A. K. Macpherson of Pitmain, M.V.O. Lt. Col. Cluny Macpherson, C.M.G. Councillor Hugh Macpherson, Mrs. Janet Gemmill, Major Ian Fyfe Macpherson, M.C. (Australia).

      Having raised the necessary funds, an assurance was made to the Kingussie Council that the Association would be responsible for the maintenance over the next 5 years provided the Graveyard was handed over in reasonable condition. I regret to report that when, in the company of prominent Members of our Association, I visited this Graveyard during last year's Rally I did not consider it had been restored to such a condition that we could be responsible for the upkeep and maintenance. One of the most urgent matters was that the enclosing wall, including the part where the ancient font had been built in, had been so weakened by a growing tree forcing the stones apart that it was likely to fall unless urgent conservation work was put in hand. I am afraid, therefore, it will be necessary for us to spend part of the funds raised for the maintenance in restoration, or at least in arresting further deterioration, and this matter is now receiving the attention of the Council.

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      In a. few years time, when we have cleared the debt on the Clan House and some other financial questions have been settled, it is intended to consider a more permanent financial arrangement whereby all branches of the Association at home and overseas can claim their share in the Burial Ground of their ancestors and express their wish to maintain it as a place of pilgrimage for Macphersons in perpetuity.

      The following note shows the great importance of the site in our clan history.
                                                                                                                              J. G. MACPHERSON
                                                                                                                              Chairman

___________

      Saint Columba landed at Iona in the year 563 A.D. and died in 597 A.D. During those thirty-four years he travelled throughout Scotland founding three hundred churches, of which St. Columba's at Kingussie is believed to be one.

      Little is known of the original settlement but that it was surrounded by an earth rampart and included a mill stream (as now), a kiln, a barn and a refectory. The church with its sacristy was of oak and the cells of the brethren were of clay and wattle.

      Little reliable information regarding the old church earlier than the 12th century has come down to us, but, as recorded in Douglas's Baronage of Scotland, around 1150, Muireach, the historical "Parson of Kingussie" became head of the family and succeeded to the chiefship of Clan Chattan. Being born a younger brother, he was bred to the church, and when he became Parson the church at Kingussie was "a large and honourable benefice". On the death without issue of his elder brother, Diarmid, the fourth chief of Clan Chattan, he succeeded in 1153, married a daughter of the Thane of Cawdor, and had five sons.

      At that time surnames were becoming hereditary and the Gaelic Mac-a-phearsain soon became shortened to its present form.

      A charter dated 25th August, 1203, states as follows:--
          "William, by the Grace of God, King of the Scots, to all good men throughout his land greeting : Know that I have granted, and by this Charter confirmed, that presentation which Gilbert de Kathern made to Bricius, Bishop of Moray, of the Church of Kynguscy, with the Chapel of Benchory and all the other rights appertaining thereto, to be held as liberally, peacefully, in munificence and honour, as the Charter of the aforesaid Bricius testifies." Despite the charter, disputes arose concerning the lands and revenues of the church between 1224 and 1350 between the Bishop of Moray and the Comyns and later the Wolf of Badenoch.

      The Priory of Kingussie in Badenoch was founded in 1490 and built on the site of the old church. The modem town of Kingussie now occupies what were the Priory precincts.

      It is interesting to note that at the time of the Reformation the clan was far ahead of its time in the matter of religious toleration. "A plank of bog fir was fixed into the church from wall to wall and so

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divided the church." In one end the priest officiated and at the other the Protestant preacher.

      In the 1890's the wall surrounding the burial ground was in need of repair, and Alexander Macpherson, "The Banker", took the lead in collecting subscriptions for that and other improvements. Among the subscribers at that time was Sir John Macdonald, G.C.B., the Prime Minister of Canada.

      "There is not, it is safe to say, one living Macpherson of the Macpherson country, or descendant of the famous "Parson" of Kingussie, all the world over, some of whose forebears do not sleep their last long sleep in the old churchyard of St. Columba."

______________

      Lt.-Col. A. K. Macpherson of Pitmain adds the following notes.
      The old belief that Muireach the Parson required and obtained a Papal Dispensation is no longer tenable. My knowledge is derived from my reading of the history of the Celtic Culdee Church and the late Balfour Paul, former Lord Lyon, in a letter to me, styled the Dispensation as 'incredible'.

      It is historical fact that Queen Margaret, wife of Malcolm Canmore, founded communities of Culdees at Loch Leven, Dunkeld, and St. Andrews, well after the Norman Conquest and well into the 12th century, and it is a matter of history that Christianity was grafted on to the Celtic tribal system, so the Druids and Bards changed imperceptibly into priests and poets. There is only one recorded martyr among missionaries to the Celts and the ancient font of our old church in the graveyard was graven, "My Druid is Christ the Son of God."

      The Celtic Church always had a married priesthood, wherever found, not only in Scotland. Monks alone took vows of celibacy. Bishops were praised for having one wife only.

      Dalchully told me that he had enquired from Rome and was informed that the Vatican library substantiated no claim to a Papal Dispensation.

      The, present graveyard is smaller than it was originally. The late Mr. Dallas, coal merchant, Kingussie, told me that as a young man he was employed on clearing the site, and that they found some twentyeight skeletons buried together close to the bank of the Gynach, well outside the present wall, and one of the skulls had a nail driven into it.

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CLANSMAN OF THE YEAR

MURDOCH ALEXANDER MACPHERSON, Q.C., D.C.L.


      Murdo MacPherson was born in Grand Anse, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, on the 16th April, 1891. He graduated from Dalhousie University, Halifax, with the degree of Bachelor of Laws in 1913 and was called to the Bars of Nova Scotia and Saskatchewan later in the same year.

      He began the practice of law in Swift Current, Saskatchewan, but his practice was interrupted by the First World War, when he was commissioned in the Canadian Army and proceeded overseas, achieving the rank of Major. He was seriously wounded in 1917 and invalided home to Canada.

      After the war, he resumed the practice of law in Swift Current and served as Saskatchewan solicitor for the Soldiers Settlement Board In 1921 he began the practice of law in Regina and has built up one of the largest and most highly regarded firms in the province. His spirit of public service carried him into politics and he sat as a member of the Legislature from 1925 to 1934, becoming Attorney-General and Provincial Treasurer.

      The Government of Canada recently demonstrated their confidence in M. A. MacPherson by appointing him Chairman of the Royal Commission on Transportation. The substance of the MacPherson Report has now appeared and is widely acclaimed throughout the Dominion.

      Really his greatest public service has been in his conduct of an honest, competent and vigorous law practice, especially in the conduct of criminal defences, where, more often than not, he has defended service veterans, juveniles and otherwise helpless persons. The absence of any hope of reward did not deter him from a hard fight. In the area of the helpless, where prosecution may become persecution, he has fought valiantly for the protection of human rights.

      At the 50th Annual Convocation of the University of Saskatchewan, held at Saskatoon in May, 1961, the degree of Doctor of Civil Law was conferred on Murdo MacPherson for distinguished public service.

      M. A. has always been a staunch supporter of the Clan Association and was elected a member of the Executive Committee of the Canadian Branch at the 1961 Annual General Meeting at Baddeck, N.S.

SIR JOHN MACPHERSON, G.C.M.G.

      Sir John Macpherson, first Governor-General of the Federation of Nigeria, and subsequently Permanent Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, has been appointed chairman of Cable & Wireless Ltd. and its associated companies.

      Sir John is deputy chairman of the Royal Commonwealth Society and chairman of the England and Wales Branch of the Clan Association.

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CAPTAIN J. HARVEY MACPHERSON
      On 14th May, 1961, Ernst August, Prince of Lippe, Edler Herr und Graf zu Biesterfeld, Graf zu Schwalenberg, etc., etc., conferred upon Captain J. Harvey Macpherson membership of his Princely House Order commonly called THE VENERABLE ORDER OF THE ROSE in the Class Grade and Rank of Officer (O.L.).

      Capt. Harvey Macpherson is the newly-appointed Deputy Secretary of the Clan Association.

THE ROYAL VISIT TO BADENOCH
CLAN HOUSE AND MUSEUM
      H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh, accompanied by Lord Macdonald of Sleat, Lord Lieutenant of Inverness-shire, paid a visit to Badenoch on 23rd March, 1961, and held a reception at the Village Hall, Newtonmore, which had been decorated with Macpherson Dress Tartan and red carpetting in honour of the occasion. The Clan Association was represented by the Vice-Chairman, Mr. Allan G. Macpherson, in the absence of the Chairman, the Hon. J. Gordon Macpherson, J.P.

      A large number of Badenoch residents were present to welcome the Duke. After the village council had been presented he entered the hall to the cheers of the assembled guests and engaged in conversation with several groups. It was noticed that he looked extremely fit after his trip to the Far East with Her Majesty.

      An important item in the programme was the presentation to His Royal Highness of a silver-mounted caman, and shortly afterwards Lord Macdonald introduced our Vice-Chairman, who welcomed the Duke to Macpherson country. The Duke enquired as to its extent and why there were so many people with other names living in it. Allan replied that, unfortunately, perhaps, for Badenoch, but fortunately for other parts of the country and the Commonwealth, many Macphersons in the course of time had left for other lands. Allan also remarked it was a pity H.R.H.'s programme did not include a visit to a most important place in Badenoch. On the Duke expressing his interest, Allan told him of Clan Macpherson House and some of the relics in the museum. The Duke was very interested and Allan on behalf of the Association extended to him a warm invitation to pay it a visit.. That was apparently going to depend on the time-table.

      Allan mentioned that on the Badenoch side of the Grampians we did not so often see the Queen and His Royal Highness as we would like, and assured him that in Badenoch they were always sure of a real Highland welcome. The Duke replied with a twinkle in, his eye that there was no saying what would happen when we got the Glen Feshie road. The Duke was here referring to the long-projected road which would connect Braemar on Deeside through the Forests of Mar and Glen Feshie to Kincraig on Speyside. The fact that Queen Victoria had wished to buy the Cluny Macpherson estate of Ardverikie before Balmoral was also mentioned in the conversation.

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      Allan and his wife, Helen, then withdrew to Clan House, where they were joined by ex-Provost Cattanach, vice-chairman of the Badenoch Branch, and Captain Macdonald, the Curator. In a few minutes the Duke arrived and was welcomed on behalf of the Association by Allan, who introduced the others. Incidentally, Helen had been trying to get a picture with her cine-camera of the Duke arriving at Clan House. He noticed this and advised her it would not come out, and that she would have a better opportunity when he was leaving.

      The Duke showed great interest in many of the exhibits, especially the Silver Candelabrum showing Cluny's escape in the Forty-Five and the inscribed list, presented by the regiment, of the twenty-six Macphersons who had served as officers in the Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders between 1793 and the present day. After studying the latter, he asked if there had ever been a Macpherson regiment in the British Army. Allan replied that the only time we had a regiment of our own was during the '45, and added that, as Macphersons took a broad view of things, and believed in sharing the best, one would find a Macpherson in almost every unit of note in the British services. The Duke took the point: " I really asked for that, didn't I," he remarked.

      Among other items which interested His Royal Highness were the Green Banner, the Black Chanter and the Genealogical Tree. After examining the Tree he asked where our Chief was living, what were his name and title, where the Clan seat is and why we don't own it, to which Allan gave full replies.

      Before he left the Duke was invited to sign the Visitors' Book, which he readily did. He also readily accepted a copy of the Green Book and one of the current issue of the Clan magazine, Creag Dhubh. When being escorted to his car by Allan and Evan, he expressed his interest in the Museum and his thanks for the opportunity to see it.

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THE CLAN HOUSE STORY
The Curator
      Opening on 23rd March with a visit, albeit unscheduled, by H.R.H. The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (an occasion dealt with elsewhere in this issue) the year 1961 can probably be classed as the Museum's "best ever" from the point of view of members enrolled and interest evinced.

      Up to 11th November, 1,768 persons signed the visitors' book. Of that total 851 claimed Scotland as their place of residence; 714, England; 14, Wales; 4, Northern Ireland; 67, the Commonwealth; 57, U.S.A.; 47, Europe; 14, elsewhere.

      Sixty-four, possessing the necessary qualifications, readily accepted the Curator's invitation to enrol as members of their clan association. Proud of their clan birth or of their clan descent, their homes are now "severed far and wide" -- Scotland 17; England 16; Australia 4; Canada 5; New Zealand 2; N. Rhodesia 1; Kenya 1; S. W. Africa 2; U.S.A. 16 -- TOTAL 64.

    &n