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CONTENTS
                                           
   A MESSAGE FROM THE CHAIRMAN      31  
   BALANCE SHEET    44  
   CAMPBELL MACPHERSON, O.B.E.    29
   CANADIAN NUMBER PRIZE    42
   C. E. TOM MACPHERSON, D.S.M.    30
   CLAN HOUSE APPEAL FUND    23
   CLAN HOUSE AND MUSEUM    24
   CLUNY OF THE FORTY-FiVE      5
   EDITORIAL      4
   ENGLISH BRANCH NONAGENARIAN    30
   INCOME AND EXPENDITURE ACCOUNT    43
   LETTERS TO THE EDITOR    27
   LONE GLEN FESHIE      8
   OBITUARY    42
   OFFICE-BEARERS      2
   OUR NEW CHAIRMAN    28
   REPORTS FROM BRANCHES    37
   THE 1958 RALLY    15
   THE CASE OF THE SEJANT CAT    14
   THE CLAN RALLY, 1957    25
   THE CLAN SCHOOL AT RUTHVEN    33
   THE DEATH OF THE MACKINTOSH    32
   THE OLD TOWNSHIPS OF BADENOCH    17
   THE SUCCESSION TO THE CHIEFSHIP      9
   THE TANISTAIR   16
                                                                                   
Price to Non-Members, and for additional Copies. 7/6
                                                                                   
Contributioni and all Branch Reports for the 1959 Number should reach the Editor as early as possible and certainly not later than 1st December 1958.
                                                                                   
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CREAG DHUBH
                                 No. 10            Badenoch Number           1958

The Black Rock of Clan Chattan welcomes little brother back from his
travels and sends him out again to convey Badenoch's greetings to all
readers, and a promise of welcome to all who can come back to the
Clan country for the Rally.
On behalf of the Badenoch Branch.
                                                                                   EVAN T. CATTANACH,
                                                                                                        Chairman.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        THE ANNUAL OF
THE CLAN MACPHERSON
ASSOCIATION

                                                                                                                                                                

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CLAN MACPHERSON ASSOCIATION

_____________________

Hon. President EWEN GEORGE MACPHERSON OF CLUNY MACPHERSON
Chief of the Clan

Hon. Vice-Presidents
Lt.-Col. A. K. MACPHERSON OF PITMAIN, M.V.O., D.L.
Senior Chieftain in the Clan
The Right Hon. LORD MACPHERSON OF DRUMOCHTER
Major NIALL M. S. MACPHERSON, M.A., M.P.
Lt.-Col. ALLAN I. MACPHERSON

COUNCIL

Officers of the Association

Chairman Councillor HUGH MACPHERSON, F.S.A.SCOT.,
BaInagarrow, 51 Glebe Road, Cramond, Midlothian

Vice-Chairman
Major J. E. MACPHERSON

Hon. Secretary
A. F. MACPHERSON, W.S., 16 Castle Street, Edinburgh, 2

Hon. Treasurer
ALLAN G. MACPHERSON, " Tigh Tiorail ", 32 Crown Drive, Inverness

Editor of Clan Annual
Major J. E. MACPHERSON, 24 Well Walk, Hampstead, London, N.W.3

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BRANCH REPRESENTATIVES
                       
   BADENOCH  
   JOHN S. MACPHERSON, Dukeville, Kingussie
NORTH OF SCOTLAND
   ALASTAIR W. MACPHERSON, The Park,
   Lhanbryde, Morayshire
   DAVID MACPHERSON, 26 Upper Kessock Street,
   Inverness
EAST OF SCOTLAND
   D. STEWART MACPHERSON, 22 Learmonth Cres,
   Edinburgh, 4
   GEORGE A. MACPHERSON, 1 Chesser Loan,
   Edinburgh, 11
WEST OF SCOTLAND
   DONALD MCPHERSON, 20 Ancaster Drive,
   Glasgow, W.2
   HAMISH MACPHERSON, 1356 Pollokshaws Road,
   Glasgow, S.1
ENGLAND & WALES
   Lt.-Col. DUNCAN I. MACPHERSON OF BANCHOR,
   O.B.E., The Little Cleave, Northam, Bideford, Devon
   The Hon. J. GORDON MACPHERSON, Normans,
   Great Warley, Brentwood, Essex
CANADA
   Lt.-Col. CLUNY MACPHERSON, C.M.G., M.D.,
   St John's, Newfoundland
   Col. E. R. RIVERS-MACPHERSON, O.B.E., F.R.S.A.,
   F.R.G.S., 80 Ontario Avenue, Ottawa, 2
SOUTHLAND, N.Z.
   DANIEL MACPHERSON, 175 Duke Street,
   Invercargill
   E. M. MACPHERSON, 64 Louisa Street, Invercargill
U.S.A.
   Mrs ALBERTA MACPHERSON-COSTELLO,
   371 East 21st Street, Brooklyn, New York
   Registrar and Curator   NORMAN L. MACPHERSON,
   Clan Macpherson House, Newtonmore
   Senior Piper    ANGUS MACPHERSON, Inveran, Sutherland
   Junior Piper   DONALD MACPHERSON, Alexandria,
   Dunbartonshire
   Hon. Auditor   KENNETH N. MCPHERSON, C.A., 41 Comely Bank Rd    Edinburgh, 4

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THE BADENOCH NUMBER

EDITORIAL

     After our highly successful visit to Canada last year, which from all accounts has been so much enjoyed by our readers, we return with this number to Badenoch, which, wherever we are, always remains our spiritual home.

      Our first item is probably unique amongst our Clan documents in that it is written by one Chief about another.

      The second article tells how recourse has been made to Clan history for help in resolving a present day problem of the succession. The inclusion of a genealogical tree from the thirteenth Chief to the twenty-fourth will help to clear up any vagueness in the minds of our readers on the subject.

      The Old Townships of Badenoch is a study of the conditions of life in the old days, and the changes which have taken place. Now that television and the atom bomb are changing the pattern of life, shall we see them rebuilt and re-occupied?

      We have dealt with the past and the changes into the present: there remains only the future, which is dealt with in The Clan School at Ruthven. To those who believe that we have an expanding heritage and that the future of the Clan will be greater than its past, this article may point the way.

      Our Honorary Secretary for Canada is rapidly qualifying for the post of Clan Herald. His facts have been approved by the Lord Lyon, who recommends that we get the manufacturers to depict the crest properly.

      For 1959 we propose to produce a memorial number to 'Old Cluny', the 'Grand Old Man of the Highlands', of last century, and the last of the patriarchal Highland chiefs. In order to make the memorial as complete as possible, we appeal to our readers, and particularly to those with a Badenoch connection, to send us-any information they may have, whether personal recollections, which only our very oldest readers can possibly have, or any information which may have been handed down to them. The purpose is to obtain, before it is too late, as complete and authentic an account as possible.

      To pay tribute to an esteemed old Chief, we know, is reward enough, but in order to overcome that initial inertia which seems to come over some people at the mere thought of lifting a pen, we offer, as an additional incentive, A copy of The Chiefs of the Clan Macpherson, by Macpherson of Dalchully, to the writer of what is adjudged to be the best tribute, or the most interesting item of information. Contributions should be sent to the Editor as soon as convenient, but in any .case not later than 30th September 1958.

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CLUNY OF THE FORTY-FIVE

      This is part of a letter written by Duncan ' of the Kiln ', the nineteenth Chief, describing the experiences of his father, Cluny of the '45.

     One copy was found in the Cluny Charter chest some sixty years ago, and another was recently found by Colonel A. Irvine Robertson, who is a descendant of Colonel, afterwards General, Stewart of Garth, and given by him to Major Niall Macpherson, M.P., one of our Honorary Vice-Presidents, as representing the Clan.

                                                                                            CLUNY HOUSE, 9th June 1817.

DEAR COLONEL,
      It is now more than high time that I should take up my pen in reply to your very kind letter of 27th Dec. last. The severe illness with which I was afflicted during a great part of the Winter, of which I have now thank God, completely got the better, and the unavoidable delay occasioned by my inquiries among the best informed old people in the country, in order to enable me, in the best manner possible, to answer your queries respecting my Father's stay in this Country after the Battle of Culloden, etc., is the only apology I can make for my long silence, which, I hope you will deem a sufficient one.

      I also received the Pestle for my Snuff Mortar, and the specimens of Trinidad Timbers, for which I beg you will accept my best thanks. The flaw in the Pestle is of no consequence, as you know the Machine is seldom or ever made use of, further than to satisfy the curiosity of those who, like you, may feel an eager desire to preserve some Memorial of the Customs of our Ancestors.

      I beg to assure you that I have my information from a person who was well known to possess a strong Memory of undoubted Veracity and who was himself an Eye witness to many of the circumstances that I am about to relate. My Father remained in Badenoch Nine Years after the Battle of Culloden, during which period every exertion was made to apprehend him, and a Reward of a Thousand Guineas and a Company, offered to any person that would take him, Dead or alive. What is rather extraordinary, after a lapse of six or seven Years, instead of relaxing, they actually redoubled their Vigilance, and placed a Detachment of Soldiers in almost every Town in the Parishes of Laggan and Kingussie, a Measure so strongly resembling that adopted previous to the Massacre of Glenco, as to induce some timid people to quit the country. The late Sir Hector Munro (then an Ensign in the Army) had been selected for this Service, as an active Officer who understood the Language, and his conduct afterwards proved him fully qualified for such a Command. To enumerate the various attempts that Sir Hector and other Officers made would fill a Volume. I shall therefore, only instance One or Two Specimens, by which you will perceive that it required more than ordinary Abilities on the part of my Father, and unbounded Attachment on the part of his Clan to protect him under such circumstances, for so long a period. After numberless attempts and failures, Ensign Munro (whose Head

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Quarters was at Ruthven) discovered that whenever he ordered his men under Arms intimation of it was forwarded to Cluny. He therefore, one night when he had reason to believe that the Chief would be at home, gave orders to his men to be in readiness at one O'clock next morning, and he himself went to bed as usual, without indicating any intention of moving that Night. At the time appointed he rose, and as he knew that he could not unbolt the door without the knowledge of some person in the House, he jumped out at a Window on the second Floor, into a back garden, to the imminent danger of his neck, and joined his Men who slept in a Barn, without disturbing a soul about the House. He also ordered a Party from Dalwhinnie to approach Cluny from the Breackachy Meadows one from Garva More, by the Ballagowan Road, a third was discerned (?) from the Heights of Cluny, while his own Party should advance by Uvie, and so well his plans were arranged, and his orders executed, that the four Detachments met at the same instant at Cluny House. No attempt, however well planned, could succeed against a Chief where every individual in the District was on the Alert for his Preservation. A poor man (John Macpherson) on the Farm of Noid, having heard the Clashing of Arms, Jumped out of Bed, and without waiting to dress himself, went immediately to give intelligence. By the time he reached Biallid he was seized with a stitch in his side, in consequence of overexertion, so that he had no Alternative but to call up another man in his place, and notwithstanding the utmost exertion, this second Express only arrived at Cluny ten minutes before the Soldiers. Cluny as they suspected was at home, and at that moment his Situation was truly perilous. He first attempted to make off for the Hills, but there he found the Clashing of Arms before him. He then proposed to cross the Spey at Beallatorstie, but as he approached the Ford, he saw the Glancing of Firelocks entering the opposite side. East and West was the same, so that he had no Alternative but to ly down under the Bank of the River, and not more than Twenty paces from where the Soldiers forded, where he lay till they were tired of search, and as soon as they departed he immediately set out to a place of greater security. At another time Munro had suspicion or intelligence, that Cluny would be at the Christening of a Child of Hugh Macpherson of Uvie. He accordingly surrounded the House with a strong Party before Daylight, and such was his Courage that he forced himself in through a Window into a room where he supposed the Chief would be in bed, Fortunately for himself He only found the Minister before him, for Cluny was always well armed and fully resolved never to be taken alive. With respect to his Haunts, they were numerous. There were natural caves in Benalder, Mealchuach, and other high Mountains, which he frequented during the summer months, and during the cold Season he had Artificial Caves at Ralia, Bialledmore, Nessintully and Strathmashie. At Ralia his Cave was dry, under the Floor of Ralia's House. but he never staid very long there, for as Mr Macpherson was his Relative, his House was liable, to more than ordinary suspicion.

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At Biailledmore, it was made under the Floor of a Sheep cot belonging to Don. Macpherson, a particular confidant, and there he was very often, for he had every reliance on the Fidelity of Macpherson and his Brothers; besides, he could enjoy the society of Banchar and Ralia almost daily; but it was at Nessintully that he found the greatest quietness and Security, until the cave was accidentally discovered by a triffling fellow who divulged the secret, and Cluny never afterwards occupied it. This cave was made by James Don Leslie and his Brother Peter in a sequestered part of the Nessintully Wood. They only wrought at Night, and all the soil was carefully put into sacks and carried to the River Spey. The inside was securely lined with Deal, the Roof covered over with Tanned Hides, over which there was some Gravel, and the whole covered over with green Sod. Within, there was a Table, two Chairs, a comfortable Bed, and a Press, with a small pane of Glass to give light, and the whole was so ingeniously contrived and executed as to make a discovery almost impossible. Cluny never forgave the fellow that deprived him of the only comfortable Lodging he had. All his Haunts were well known to almost every Gentleman in the Country, and he was occasionally a Guest with many Tenants on whose prudence he could rely, but he never allowed more than one Family at a time to know the place of his Concealment, and if by accident, he was observed by any other person, he would immediately change his Quarters. There were only four that knew where he was to be found on all Occasions, viz.:-- the two Leslies, already mentioned, James Macpherson, his own Piper, and a Samuel Macpherson, from Breakachy. These four brought him Provisions and other Necessaries, and it was to them that his friends applied when they had anything particular to communicate to him, or when there was any extraordinary movements of Troops observed application was made to one of them to know whether he was in any Danger, for it was intended to attempt to re-take him by Force, should he have the misfortune to fall into their hands. From all these circumstances it may safely be averred that he could not be long concealed without the entire support of his Clan. On another occasion when my Father was at Cluny, in a small House inhabited by the Family after the Castle was burned, the House was suddenly surrounded by a Party of Soldiers (Red Coats as they were then called) commanded by Ensign Munro, whose information was so correct, and managed matters so secretly that there was no possibility of my Father's making his Escape, but in this Emergency, his presence of mind did not forsake him, and he stood firm and collected in himself, and altho' he saw himself on the brink of Destruction, and falling into the hands of his Persecutors, by which he must suffer an ignominous death, he deliberately stept into the Kitchen, where a servant man was sitting and exchanged clothes with him, all of which was the work of a few moments, and when the Officer commanding the Party rode up to the Door, he, without any hesitation, ran out, held the Stirrup while dismounting; walked the Horse about while the Officer was in the House, and when he came

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out again, held the Stirrup to him to mount; on which the Officer asked him if he knew where Cluny was, he answered, he did not, and if he did, he would not tell him; when the Officer replied, I believe you would not, You are a good fellow, Here is a shilling for you.

      It is true that he possessed Vigilance and foresight in a very extraordinary Degree, and many instances might be related to prove that he had an extensive knowledge of human nature; yet the result proved that all his precautions with respect to his own Clan were unnecessary, for during the Nine years of his Outlawry, only one Man attempted to betray him, and that man was obliged to fly the Country and never afterwards returned. I am not certain that his Tenants paid him Rent at the same time that they paid it to the Barons of Exchequer. I rather think they made him that Offer, but he declined it, tho' if such a Measure was found necessary, I am convinced that it would not be at all confined to his own Tenants.

      I had almost omitted one circumstance relative to my Father, which I think worth communicating -- James Leslie (mentioned formerly) was met by a party of Soldiers as he returned from one of Cluny's caves and as he had a Table Cloth and some dishes, they rightly concluded that he had been with some Victuals to him, and threatened him (Leslie) with instant death if he did not lead them instantly to his hiding place. Leslie declared that he knew nothing about him, and had not seen Cluny for twelve months. They desired him to make Oath to that effect, and he accordingly swore Point Blank on a Drawn Sword (a mode of swearing held most sacred in the Highlands) that he did not know where he was, and that he did not see him for Twelve Months back. Being asked what he had been doing with the Dishes, he declared that he had been with the Breakfast of people casting Peats . . . . Mrs Macpherson and Mrs Cameron unite with me in kindest Regards and believe me to remain at all times.
                                                  My Dear Sir
                                                             Yours very faithfully,
                                                                                                         D. MACPHERSON
Colonel Stewart of Garth

****
                                                 Come with me to lone Glen Feshie
                                                 When the grey crags are aglow.

                                                 With the broad sun westward wheeling,
                                                 Come and sit, and let thine ear
                                                 Drink the music of the waters
                                                 Rolling low and swirling clear.

                                                 In the land of the Macphersons
                                                 Where the Spey's wide waters flow,
                                                 In the land where Royal Charlie
                                                 Knew his best friend in his woe.
                                                                              JOHN STUART BLACKIE, 1809-1895.
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THE SUCCESSION TO THE CHIEFSHIP OF THE CLAN MACPHERSON By ALAN G. MACPHERSON, M.A., and A. F. MACPHERSON, W.S.

      The following Notes have been compiled from a number of documents which were at one time in the Cluny Charter Chest and which are now in the Macpherson of Cluny Collection in Register House, Edinburgh. The documents are of primary importance to the Clan ' Macpherson Association, for they are the only papers in existence which reveal the accepted rules of succession to the chiefship within our Clan. They also reveal the constitutional relationship between an existing Chief and his Clansmen during a period in the Clan's history when the future succession to the chiefship was doubtful.

      In 1689 the chiefship of the Clan was held by Duncan of Cluny, while his nearest heir male was William of Nuide.

      In 1689 (a month or two before John Graham of Claverhouse raised the Clans for James VII in the Rising which fizzled out after the Battle of Killiecrankie), Duncan of Cluny was arranging a marriage between his only child, Anne, and Archibald Campbell, son of Sir Hugh Campbell of Calder. The first part of the negotiations for the marriage settlement was carried out at Calder (Cawdor), to which place Cluny went with some of his principal Clansmen.

      On their return to Badenoch these men reported to a large assembly of clansmen at Banchor, and it was discovered that, contrary to their wishes, Cluny proposed to make his son-in-law his heir to both estate and chiefship, ignoring the claims of William of Nuide, the lawful heir male. The Clan assembly thereupon, on the 14th (January or February) 1689, drew up the first document in our series, THE BANCHOR BOND.

      The Banchor Bond states that in view of Cluny's intentions the clansmen unitedly undertake " We shall not own nor countenance any person as Duncan Macpherson's representative, and failing heirs male of his body, excepting William McPherson of Nuide, who is his true lineal successor, and the heirs male of his body; which failing, the heirs male whatsoever and so forth successively." They also undertook to put Nuide in possession of the Cluny estate, and Nuide promised to act as chief, bearing all the responsibilities of that office to his clansmen. The Bond was signed by Nuide and fifteen others from all branches of the Clan.

      At the same time a larger number of clansmen signed a letter to Sir Hugh Campbell of Calder, warning him that his son, Cluny's future son-in-law, " was not to meddle " in their affairs, i.e., in the Clan affairs. The preamble of the letter states that Cluny went to Calder with the clansmen's " consents and advice " on the marriage settlement, but that the Clan assembly was" doubtful that our thoughts to you thereon have not been freely imparted" by Cluny.

      The views of the Clan assembly eventually prevailed, for when the marriage settlement was drawn up at Cluny on the 15th March 1689, there was no mention of entailing the estate and chiefship to Archibald

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Campbell. There is one clause, however, which promised a further tocher (money settlement) on Anne Macpherson " if Duncan Macpherson shall have no male children of his own body". Another clause declared that the tocher was to be used to redeem a wadset (mortgage) on the estate of Cluny, and that Archibald Campbell was then to assume the wadset on the same conditions as in the case of the previous wadsetters. (These were certainly Macphersons, and very probably members of the family of Nuide).

      The Banchor Bond and its associated letter to Calder, therefore, puts the constitutional position of the clansmen and chiefship clearly:
          (a) Cluny has to obtain the views of his clansmen on his successor as chief.
           (b) The clansmen adhered to the principle of succession by their heir male, i.e., a male connected through males only " and so forth successively ", and
           (c) The succession to the chiefship can only be effective when the Clan is willing to "own and' countenance' the new chief, and when he is willing to bear his responsibilities to them."

      Owing to financial entanglements, the precise nature of which has not as yet been determined from the Cluny Collection papers, Duncan Macpherson did not give up his own views on his heir. His wife, Anne's mother, died in the spring of 1696, while Cluny was a political prisoner in Fort William. He had no son, and Anne and her husband, Archibald Campbell, now of Cluness and tutor (guardian) of Islay, had given him a grandson, Duncan Campbell, Younger, of Cluness. It was natural that Duncan of Cluny should wish his grandson to succeed him.

      Meanwhile the Nuide family, as nearest heirs male, undertook to help Cluny financially, and in January 1698 Cluny and William of Nuide's son, Lachlan, drew up "Articles of Agreement" at Kingussie. The Kingussie Articles state that, with certain reservations, Cluny was "to dispone in fee the lands of Clunie with the rest of his interest in favour of Lauchlan McPherson, Younger, of Noid." Among the reservations is provision for a future wife to Cluny, should he re-marry. The Articles proceed to state the rights of Nuide and Cluny's son, should the latter be born: "If it shall please God that Clunie shall have an heir male procreate of his own body surviving his father then and in that case Noid doth declare this present disposition made in his favour to be void and null."

      Despite this arrangement, which seemed to place Cluny in the power of the Nuide family, who were backed by the Clan, Cluny succeeded in persuading his followers to accept a compromise. The new constitutional document, which was signed at Kingussie on the 8th November 1699, amends the Banchor Bond of 1689, rather than abrogating it.

      THE KINGUSSIE BOND proceeds: "We kinsmen and friends to Duncan Macpherson of Clunie of the surname of Macpherson, having taken to our serious consideration the present state. and condition of

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affairs pertaining to the person and estate of Clunie, and being therewith after mature deliberation ripely advised, HAVE upon and for diverse good respects and weighty considerations UNANIMOUSLY NOMINATED, ELECTED AND CHOSEN Archibald Campbell of Cluness, Tutor of Islay, son-in-law to Duncan Macpherson of Clunie . . . to be our chief and principal representative in vice and place of Duncan Macpherson of Clunie, both as to his estate, honours and following." The son-in-law was to succeed " after the decease of Duncan Macpherson of Clunie, and failing of heirs male of his (Duncan's) body." The son-in-law was to be succeeded by his heirs male, the first being Duncan Campbell, Cluny's grandson.

      This part of the Kingussie Bond seems to reverse the terms of the Banchor Bond, which rejected Cluny's son-in-law as his heir. But the second Bond ends " With this express provision and condition: that his eldest son (Duncan Campbell) and failing of him his next eldest son and their successors shall assume and take to themselves the name and arms of Macpherson and not betake themselves at any time therefrom." The bond was signed by over thirty Clansmen, including Nuide and several signatories of the earlier Bond.

      The constitutional points of the Bond are quite clear:
           (a) The Clansmen "nominate, elect and choose" the Chief.
           (b) The bond is nullified if Cluny has a son, and
           (c) The bond is only ratified when Cluny's grandson (Duncan Campbell) takes the surname and arms of Cluny.

      The series of documents ends with the draft of Articles of Entail betwixt Duncan of Clunie with consent of his kindred and Archibald Campbell of Cluness". The estate is entailed to Campbell and his sons, and if their male succession fails, "to Cluny's nearest heirs male", that is, Nuide.

      The first provision is that Duncan Campbell" shall assume the name and arms of Macpherson," failure to observe which means that the estate "forfeits and falls to Clunie's nearest heirs male". Another provision is that if Cluny has an heir male of his own body, Archibald Campbell will " denude himself of all right he hath to the estate and the other titles and honours pertaining thereto." This brought him into line with Lachlan of Nuide. A further provision lays it down that the Campbells cannot sell or grant any of the estate "without the consent and advice of six of the principals of the name of Macpherson living in Badenoch." A final provision nominates William of Nuide and Archibald Campbell to meet to agree upon a division of the management of the estate.

      Duncan Macpherson of Cluny re-married in 1700, and again in 1711. But his son of the second marriage, George, died in infancy. The family of Nuide continued to act as nearest cadet, and made itself financially responsible for Cluny's affairs. In 1715 Lachlan of Nuide led the Clan to join the Earl of Mar. In 1721 he entered judicially into possession of the estates of Cluny. Finally, in 1722 Duncan of Cluny died and Lachlan of Nuide, the nearest heir male,

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Genealogical Chart of the Descent from Cluny XIII to XXIV

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succeeded him as chief of Clan Macpherson. It must be presumed that Duncan's marriages, George's birth and Nuide's financial interests on the one side and Duncan Campbell of Cluness' failure to observe the terms of the Kingussie Bond and the Articles of Entail on the other, led to the unopposed succession of the Nuide line to the chiefship.

      To sum up: The Banchor and Kingussie Bonds, etc., show that:
           1. Normally the chiefship goes by male descent.
           2. If a chief without a son wishes to depart from the principle of male descent, the Clan is constitutionally correct in opposing his nomination.
           3. If the chief's nominee (his son-in-law) agrees that he will be succeeded by his son, who will assume the name and arms of Macpherson, the Clan is constitutionally empowered to nominate, elect and choose the nominee.
           4. If the condition as to assumption of name, etc., is not observed, the succession reverts to the nearest heir male by male descent.
           The present Chief is the last male descendant, through males only, of " Old Cluny " (died 1885), who matriculated Arms as Chief of the Clan in 1872. He has two daughters, but no son to succeed him.

      In these circumstances a situation might arise on his death such as is described in the foregoing notes, unless provision was made to avoid it.

      In conformity with the principles explained in the Notes, Cluny, on the recommendation of the Council of the Association, has now therefore matriculated at the office of the Lord Lyon a formal nomination providing for the succession to the chiefship, on his death without leaving a son, of the present heir male, viz., Francis Cameron Macpherson, of Three Gates, Moreton Morrell, Warwickshire, who is the grandson of Colonel John Cameron Macpherson, C.B. (died 1873), the youngest brother of "Old Cluny ", and the heirs male of his body.

      Francis Cameron Macpherson is, therefore, the Tanist or Tanistair, i.e., heir apparent to the chiefship, and was so acknowledged by the Association at the Annual General Meeting in August 1956. The principal copy of the decree of the Lord Lyon King of Arms adopting the nomination is held by the Council on the Chief's behalf, and a duplicate has been lodged at the Clan House in Newtonmore, where it can be seen by any member wishing to do so.

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THE CASE OF THE SEJANT CAT
By R. G. M. MACPHERSON

      There isn't a Clansman who is not familiar with the motto' Touch not the Cat bot a glove', which is proudly displayed on the 'strap and buckle' surrounding the wild-cat crest of our Chief. The cat, of course, is not the 'Clan crest', but rather the personal crest of the Chief and that, 'within the strap and buckle', is Cluny's method of badging his Clan, thus indicating that we are his followers.

      It is a curious and unreasonable situation that the cat we display most frequently is not, in fact, the crest of our Chief.

      It all began in 1672, when Duncan Macpherson of Cluny, 16th Chief, recorded arms in the newly inaugurated Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland at the Court of the Lord Lyon. His crest was wrongly blazoned (or described in heraldic terms) as 'a Cat sejant proper', whereas the actual painting in the Register depicts 'a Cat sejant guardant and erect proper'. In plain language the cat was described as 'a cat sitting down', but correctly shown on the parchment as 'a cat sitting down, its head turned in full view and his forepaws raised in a rampant position'. The term 'proper' indicates that the cat is represented in its natural colours.

     Cluny, quite naturally, was probably unfamiliar with the language of the Herald, and this incorrect blazon was allowed to pass unquestioned. As a result, in the matriculation of 'Old Cluny' in 1873 and the two recent matriculations of our present Chief in 1948 and 1957, the cat is still described as 'sejant' although in reality it is 'sejant guardant and erect'.

      Many current Scottish books on tartans showing the coats of arms of the chiefs have taken the heraldic description of Cluny's Arms literally and have depicted simply the 'sejant cat'. Manufacturers of Highland jewellery have, quite understandably, followed the same blazon and produced the 'sitting cat" but they have taken a step in the right direction by showing the cat 'guardant' or full face. No attempt, however, is made to raise his forepaws to the rampant position.

      Heraldry is such an exact science, but exceptions do appear and it is regrettable that, in our own Chief's case, the blazon says one thing and means another. Natural confusion results unless the artist pays a visit to H.M. Register House in Edinburgh and views the painting in the Lyon Register for himself. I was delighted to note that the badge of our Clan Association displays the correct Cluny cat.

      Another little known fact is that the Chief's motto is really ' Touch not the Cat BUT a glove' and not 'Bot' as most clansmen imagine. 'But' is another variant of the old spelling of the word which, in broad Scots, means 'without' but Cluny's matriculations and the 'Bratach Uaine' or Green Banner will bear evidence of which form is correct. It will be seen that, in the instance of the Green Banner, the cat is depicted in yet another position. The artist apparently only

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raised one paw in the air instead of two. Incidentally, the motto is frequently misunderstood and really means 'Touch not the cat when IT is without a glove' or 'Touch not the ungloved cat' with claws exposed. It does not mean 'Touch not the cat when you have no glove on your hand'.

      I would like to see a determined effort on the part of the various manufacturers of Highland jewellery to produce the correct cat, 'sejant guardant and erect', surrounded by the motto 'Touch not the cat BUT a glove'. After all, if we, as Clansmen, are going to display the crest of our Chief ' within the strap and buckle let us do it correctly. Let us use the 'erect cat'!

               

Diagram#1                                      Diagram #2

The Chief's crest, showing the correct      The most commonly used crest
cat, sejant guardant and erect'.                       showing the 'cat sejant guardant'.

      [Editor 's note: Subsequent to the publication of this article the Lyon changed his mind and described the crest differently. See CD??? -- RM]

***

1958 RALLY
      As already announced, the 1958 Rally will take place on the 15th, 16th and 17th August, commencing with a Highland Ceilidh on the evening of the 15th, followed by the Annual General Meeting on the 16th (morning), both of the above at the Newtonmore Hall. For the afternoon of the 16th an excursion is being arranged to visit parts of the Clan country, and in the evening will be held the Highland Ball at the Duke of Gordon Hotel, Kingussie. The Rally will terminate with a Church Service at St Columba's Parish Church, Kingussie, on the morning of the l7th.

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THE TANISTAIR

      Francis Cameron Macpherson, the Tanistair, was born on 3rd October 1901 in London. His father was Captain Duncan Macpherson, R.N., and his grandfather, Colonel John Cameron Macpherson, the youngest brother of 'Old Cluny'. Colonel John was in The Black Watch and distinguished himself in the Crimean War., Two of his nephews, sons of 'Old Cluny ', also saw service with him in the Crimea, Colonel Duncan, the 21 st Chief, who later commanded The Black Watch, and Colonel Ewen, the 22nd Chief, who commanded the 93rd Highlanders.

      The Tanistair was educated at Eton. He has a Swedish wife, whom he married in Stockholm in 1930, and has three daughters, two of whom work in London and also act as assistant secretaries to the London Branch of the Association. In 1939 he joined the Royal Artillery, serving till 1945, the last eighteen months at Woolwich, where many an erring gunner, being court martialled, had reason to thank him as Soldier's Friend.

      His home is on the Fosse Way, near the village of Moreton Morrell, a few miles from Stratford-on-Avon. Sixty acres of strong land producing good yields of crops surround the house and also a very beautiful garden, largely created by himself. Though the acreage is small, to obtain the best possible results, he runs both a 'combine' and a drier. One might wonder if it ever crosses his mind, when drying his crops, that his great-grandfather was known as Colonel Duncan 'of the Kiln', because such was his birthplace, the ' redcoats having burned down his father's castle.

      But, history apart, the Tanistair takes a serious view of the breaking up of estates and farms, owing to high taxation and death duties. He considers that small farms cannot face the outlay on machinery and buildings necessary for efficiency, and that some form of co-operation is essential.

      To his garden the Tanistair has devoted a very great part of his time and it has given pleasure to many people, as it is open to the public under the National Gardens Scheme. One visitor was so impressed that he remarked, "If there is an atheist in the vicinity, he had better come around and have a look." Very fortunately, he has a number of coloured. transparencies of his roses and, when it was suggested that the Clan would like to see them, he readily agreed, not only to project them on a screen at the Clan Rally Ceilidh this year, but also to pass on the benefit of his experience in growing them.

      We hope no sudden crisis will arise that evening to cause the Tanistair, in the absence of the Chief, to send round the fiery cross and make us turn our trowels back into claymores.
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Photograph of Francis Cameron Macpherson

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THE OLD TOWNSHIPS OF BADENOCH
      We are indebted to Miss Rona Macpherson, M.A., of Edinburgh, now Mrs Donald Mackenzie, for permission to publish parts of her degree thesis covering research into, amongst others things, the causes of changes of population in Badenoch. Incidentally, interesting light is shed on Badenoch's ability In the eighteenth century to maintain and supply at need about six hundred armed Macphersons: most of the answer would appear to lie with the eighty-five now deserted townships, each of which then had a population of twenty-five to thirty people and produced its five or six armed men of between the ages of sixteen and sixty.

     The first people to enter and occupy Upper Speyside were Picts, who spoke a Brythonic language and brought an Iron Age culture to the region. They were cattle herders, and thus introduced the livestock which was to supply the basis of the economy of the region for many centuries. Those people probably entered Badenoch in 200 B.C. at the earliest; they may not have settled permanently in the district until A.D. 200.

      In the sixth century Christian missionaries of the Columban brotherhood first came to the region from the west, in all probability using the corridor of the Spean and Loch Laggan, which leads directly to Strathspey over low, easily traversed country. They found the countryside forested and marshy in its lower parts. Among the settlements were forts, such as Dun da Lamh (The Fort of Two Hands) at the fork of the Spey Valley and the Loch Laggan corridor. The religion of the people expressed itself in stone circles, traces of which are found in the region, as at Delfour. The mound on which St Columba's Church is built at Kingussie is- thought to be the site of an Iron Age stone circle.

Gaelic and Place Names.
      This region was, on the western frontier of Pictdom, to judge from place-names in Strathspey. Until the- early nineteenth century many township names began with the Brythonic prefix 'pit'. Such names are seen on the maps of the -eighteenth century as ' Pitchurn ', which to-day is seen as 'Balchurn. It appears that the names changed in the early nineteenth century.- When Government map makers printed the names with the - Gaelic prefix 'Baile' (a village or place) for the first time. Such changed place-names are found as far west as Balgowan, which was known in the eighteenth century as 'Pitgowan' (the place of the blacksmith). To the west of the region, however, these early Pictish names were not found.

      The Gaelic tongue, which came to be the language of the people for thirteen centuries, was first introduced by missionaries from the west. The Strath was visited by several saints at different times and the remains of several early Christian chapels are seen in the district. Notable among these are St Columba's at Kingussie, on a riverside site, till its successor came to occupy the Court Mound (Tom a Mhoid), where it remains to-day; St Adamnan's on a mound at the outlet of Loch Insh; St Bride's on the River Calder; St Mochalumaig's at

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Tromie Bridge; St Drostan's at Dunachton and by Loch Alvie, where today Alvie Church still stands, on a dry sandy mound overlooking marshy flats. In Laggan, St Kenneth had a chapel at Aberarder overlooking the Pattack, and one was dedicated to him at Crathie. His influence on the life of that basin can be deduced from the fact that the parish and various places derived their names from his monk's cell, Laggan Choinnich (the hollow of Kenneth).

The Scottish Kingdom
      Subsequent to the establishment of Christianity in Upper Strathspey, came the invasion of the region by Celtic-speaking Scots, who imposed their racial type and language on the original settlers. They completed the clearing of the forests and established a settlement pattern, which existed in much the same form up to the middle of the eighteenth century.

      From the beginnings of the Scottish kingdom in 800 A.D. to the Wars of Independence in the fourteenth century, Badenoch, which included land to the south, west and north of Upper Strathspey, was in the hands of the Comyns. It was part of the province of Moray, almost an autonomous state. After 1300 Badenoch was debatable land disputed by the Lords of the Isles and the central government of the Lowlands, until the defeat of the former in the fifteenth century. The power of the latter was first expressed in the rule of Alexander Stewart, the Wolf of Badenoch, brother of James I, [James was nephew of Alexander whose brother was Robert III -- Ed.] whose castle of Ruthven crowned the mound now occupied by the ruins of Ruthven barracks. His short-lived and ill-famed barony was succeeded by the power of the Gordons. From the fifteenth to the nineteenth century Badenoch was part of the feudal domains of the Earls of Huntly, later Dukes of Gordon. Under the protection of the Gordons a number of strong chiefs of the Macphersons enabled them to establish themselves as a strong political force, as was shown in the later Jacobite risings.

The Old Way of Life
      From the sixth century onwards, life in Strathspey was fairly typical of the Highlands as a whole. The people held their land from their chief and were bound to support him in peace and war.

      The people lived in hamlets of drystone-walled, thatched cottages of primitive design and workmanship, which retained many of their early features right up to the nineteenth century. These cottages, two rooms at best, were arranged in groups of from six to a dozen on a site chosen for its dryness, shelter, nearness to cultivable land and proximity to a water supply in the form of a stream or spring. Each township had several enclosures for stock and a kiln for drying corn. When in the township the stock was often housed and always enclosed.

      Surrounding the township was a patch of common pasture, while nearby lay the strips of improved land. Meadow land lay in the lower stream-side lands, and beyond every township lay its rough pastures,

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which might be at several miles distance in the hills. In the distant summer-pastures each township had shielings, small hamlets used by the herds who looked after the transhumant flocks. As soon as weather permitted, the least valuable part of the stock, the thin-wooled seana chaorich bheaga (little old sheep) moved with some young herdsmen to the hills in March. By the first of June whole families were moving up with the valuable milk cows, leaving a few men to care for the arable land. Butter and cheese were made, and formed an export from the district in the seventeenth century. By night, the flocks which grazed on the best land in rotation, were gathered round the shielings, which became well manured as a result, and are still marked by green grass among the moors of rough grass and heather.

      The shielings of Upper Strathspey were situated on the periphery of the region, and thus people of neighbouring villages might be separated by great distances during the summer. The summer grazings of the Laggan basins lay in the upper Spey Valley and as far south as the northern shores of Loch Ericht, to the east they lay in Gaick and Glen Feshie forests, on the north-west in the Monadhliath, as far north as the upper Dulnain Valley.

The Black Cattle Trade
      During this period the black cattle trade of the Highlands with the south was developing; Badenoch as a route centre saw the movement of cattle southward to the Falkirk Tryst, through the Grampian passes. Routes entered the region from the north, through the Monadhliath, such as that from the Killin valley above Loch Ness to Glen Banchor, which utilises Coire nan Laogh (Corrie of the Calves).

      Routes from the north, west (by the upper Spey and Loch Laggan corridors) and east (from Rothiemurchus and lower Speyside) converge in Upper Strathspey and a cattle fair was established at Pitmain. From this point various routes crossed the Grampians southwards, one of which lay across the Pass of Minigeig, which, though high (2,700 feet) was more open and less easy to ambush than Gaick Pass to the west (1,600 feet). There were also routes from Laggan through Strath Mashie to Drumochter, and to the east across the Feshie Geldie Pass (1,750 feet) to the Dee Valley. The flat top of An Sgarsoch, which is of ancient significance in the cattle trade, was probably a place of exchange between the folk of Badenoch, Deeside and Atholl, where stray cattle and sheep may have been gathered from time to time.

The New Roads
      Lying as it does directly to the north of the series of gaps which cut across the Grampian barrier, Upper Strathspey was used in medieval times as a route by both armies and cattle drovers, but the eighteenth century saw a great advance in road building as the strategic position of the valley was noted.

      The lowest pass through the Grampians -- the Pass of Drumochter (1,500 feet) -- was

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chosen by General Wade, who laid down the first metalled road through the district, in preference to those of Gaick (1,600 feet) and Minigeig (2,700 feet) which, though more direct, were more difficult to cross in winter. General Wade not only built a road to his barracks at Ruthven, but in 1731 sent a branch across the high Corrieyairack Pass to Fort Augustus. The latter has never since been repaired for use by wheeled traffic, but the easy direct route to the north down the Spey has since been remade, crossing the Spey by Spey Bridge, built in the 1770's, and thence northwards, keeping to the western bank because, in the absence of large tributaries on that bank, few bridges are needed.

      At this time also a coach road was built as far west as Garvabeg and in the nineteenth century a coach road to Fort William was built through the Pattack-Mashie trench (848 feet) to Loch Laggan-side, thus bringing the eastern parts of that district within the radius of Kingussie. A proposed Wade road to Dee-side through Glen Feshie has never been built.

The Effects of the New Roads
      The advent of coach travel and the innovations which followed affected the district profoundly. The people who had before been content to settle on the hill sides, where the largest areas of cultivable land lay, now wished to descend to the town which grew up on the new road. Kingussie, founded in the late eighteenth century by the Duke of Gordon, who tried to establish a woollen mill there, using the power of the river Gynack, drew its population from the surrounding hills and glens. Goods such as food, ready-made cloth and clothing and furniture, could now be imported along the new road, to be sold at the rising centres of Kingussie and Newtonmore, and also, later, of Kincraig, Laggan Bridge and Dalwhinnie. More and more people were drawn to the villages, which in turn grew more important as marketing and manufacturing centres. The sketch illustrating settlement and routes in the eighteenth century shows clearly the large number of townships deserted by the movement into the towns and villages, though also to some extent by the considerable emigration which was taking place at the time.

The Advent of the Railway
      The advent of the railway added to the effect of the roads. The Highland Line, built in 1863, was the first to penetrate Northern Scotland, and it followed the road in its route through the Kingussie Basin. Built before the West Highland Line from Glasgow (1894) this Edinburgh-Inverness Line ran through the Drumochter Pass rather than the much lower Pattack Pass to the west. Thus the western basin has never been affected by modernisation to the extent of the Kingussie Basin, a major trade route. The railway opened up trade to an even greater extent than the coach road. The easy transport of heavy goods such as coal allowed industry to expand, but only temporarily, in the nineteenth century.

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Map of Badenoch showing settlements

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Isolated Laggan
      The neglect of Laggan by the trade route has led to an interesting contrast in the way of life in the two basins. Laggan has seen no introduction of industry, though its ancient crafts have disappeared; the tourist trade has not developed to any great extent; there are no golf courses and, since the First World War, no hotels, the nearest being that at Loch Laggan. The basin retains its traditionally purely rural character, there being no real village in the glen. The people cling to their Highland traditions; the older people still speak Gaelic on occasion; in 1881 88-3 per cent. of the Laggan people spoke Gaelic, but only 69 per cent. of the Kingussie people; in 1951 the trend had accelerated; in Laggan Gaelic speakers accounted for only 16 per cent., while in Kingussie they made up the very low percentage of 9.4. Badenoch has the lowest percentage of Gaelic speakers of any district in Inverness-shire, owing to its proximity to the south. The only people in the district who now speak Gaelic are the older generation, and even they seldom use the language. In the absence of a revival, it will probably die out completely, even in isolated Laggan.

Lost Traditions
      Not only the old language, but many fine traditions have been lost, including that of the early Columban Church in Badenoch and the clan communal feeling with its attachment to the land, though in many cases the two last have merely been transferred to the Commonwealth and other countries, as evidenced by the many Badenoch names to be found in Canada and elsewhere.

      The change from the old cattle-raising and subsistence crofting to modern sheep-farming has not all been to the good and is in part accountable for the drift to the south. Apart from the dispersal which took place after the '45, the lack of any established industry in the district has been mainly responsible for the steady drain of young men and young women from the region.

      The population of the district was probably at its highest just before the '45 Rebellion. Ruthven, for example, was a large township for those days, having an inn, a gaol, and a school of the highest repute, where James Macpherson of Ossian fame was for a time the schoolmaster. It was even able to support a ' writer ' or lawyer.

      Since 1745 the population has steadily declined throughout the hills and glens of Laggan, Kingussie and Alvie. Tenants who obstructed the Forfeited Estates Commissioners in their duties were evicted and, later, young men were enlisted by the Chief for the wars and left Badenoch, some never to return. Towards the end of the century the introduction of sheep-farming, though no clearances were made by Cluny or any of the Macpherson landowners, accentuated the drift to the south, and the decrease in the size of the family, as in all Scotland, was perhaps the final factor.

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CLAN MACPHERSON HOUSE APPEAL FUND
      Two and a half years and �900 to go. Can we do it? You bet we can! A promise is a promise and Macphersons will not let me down. Less than �l per member will clear off our debt in full.

      Again the East of Scotland Branch leads the field in donations during 1957, followed by the other Scottish Branches. No doubt our English and Overseas Branches will be heard from shortly. Another hefty effort by every member would do the trick.

      In a little over six years we have raised �2,444, 15s. 6d., so surely the balance of �900 is not beyond our ability during the next two and a half.

     What a grand feeling it will be when we all gather in Badenoch in 1960 and watch the flame rise from the burning mortgage!

      Send your donations to our Treasurer.

Mr ALLAN G. MACPHERSON, Tigh Tiorail, 32 Crown Drive, Inverness.

                                                        HUGH MACPHERSON, F.S.A.SCOT.,                                                         Chairman, Clan Macpherson House Appeal Fund.

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Detailed Proceeds of Clan Macpherson House Appeal

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Report of Clan Rally, 1957

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Report of Clan Rally, 1957 (cont)

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Report of Clan Rally, 1957 (cont)

***

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
SIR,
      In common with the majority of my contemporaries, I have earned, acquired or received a number of medals.

      I have thought of bestowing them on, or leaving them to, Clan House, and would be glad to know if Clan House would find them acceptable.

      Besides being elegant examples of twentieth-century workmanship, each has our distinguished name firmly impressed around its edge, so that to some extent at least they are Clan relics; and if our descendants are more fortunate than we were they will serve as reminders of that barbaric twentieth century when people actually used force to try to impress their opinions on others.

      Perhaps the Council would consider the matter, and you, Sir, would let us know their decision through your columns.

Yours, etc.,
                                                                                                   SINGLE ROW.
EDINBURGH.

SIR,
      Would it be possible to send me two more copies of Creag Dhubh, No. 9 (the Canadian Number) )? I am enclosing a slight contribution to cover expense of same.

      I would also like to know the exact meaning of Creag Dhubh and why it is used as the title of the journal.

      Our branch of the Clan had no contribution in the Canadian Number, but a niece is working on our family history. . . .

                                                        CHRISTINA MACPHERSON.
PARKHILL, ONTARIO.
[Creag Dhubh is, literally, 'The Black Rock', a hill which dominates the whole of the Macpherson country. In battle, 'Creag Dhubh Chloinn Chatain ' was the war cry and rallying cry of the Clan and its septs, hence its appropriateness, in more peaceful times, as the title for the Clan journal.]

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OUR NEW CHAIRMAN

      Councillor Hugh Macpherson, F.S.A.SCOT., was born at Loth, Sutherland, in 1907, but left Scotland with his family for Canada in 1924. However much he liked his new country, his affection for his native Scotland was such that he determined he would make his way back as soon as the opportunity offered.       After an apprenticeship to business in banking, he became Chief Accountant to the Alliance Paper Mills of Merritton, Ontario. At the same time his interest in Highland pipe music had made him Pipe-Major of the St Catharines Pipe Band, and a little later, Deputy Royal Chief, Order of Scottish Clans, for the province of Ontario. During the war he served as a Captain in the Royal Canadian Artillery.

Coming Events
      Before that, a small incident had started the chain of events which was eventually to bring him back to Scotland. Not being satisfied with the quality of the bagpipe reeds which his pipers were getting, he sent to Scotland for some better ones. Reeds led to pipes, and pipes to kilts. Hugh saw and grasped the opportunity to combine his hobby with business. In a short time Hugh Macpherson Imports Ltd., of St Catharines was formed with Hugh as President. The next step was from importing to manufacturing, and the way back to Scotland was open. Hugh Macpherson (Scotland) was founded in 1947, with the success we know.

Highland Traditions
      Hugh has many and varied interests. He has brought back with him that sharpened interest in things Scottish which living abroad gives to so many clansmen. As a Fellow of the Antiquarian Society, he is interested in all the old Highland customs and traditions, including one which he not only studies, but with the able assistance of Mrs Hugh, puts into practice, that of Highland hospitality. As President of the Scottish Pipe Band Association, he is not only an authority on old Highland music, but his name is known in every household where there is a piper, or even an interest in piping.

      At the same time he is far from living in the past. He is deeply concerned about the depopulation of the Highlands, especially his beloved Sutherland, and devotes much attention to schemes which might help to reverse the trend.

Clan Interest
      In the Association Hugh has been a very active Vice-Chairman for three years, and is a very glutton for work. Not content with undertaking to liquidate the Clan House debt within three years, he is now discussing with the Branch Chairmen another Three Years' Plan, this time to establish a world-wide framework of Clan Representatives. He says he will not be content till every administrative

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unit, whether it be a Scots or English county, a province in the Commonwealth, a State in the U.S.A., or an island in the Pacific, has its Clan Representative, who will be responsible for two-way communication, either direct with its nearest branch or, if that is not direct enough, straight to headquarters.

      It is a bold conception, and three short years will soon pass, but the combination of Hugh's energy and the enthusiastic clansmanship of the Branch Chairmen should command success.

Unofficial Ambassador
      As a Councillor of the City of Edinburgh, he represents not only his civic ward, but also the Highlands and our relations with at least part of the Commonwealth. On his visits to Canada and the U.S.A. he acts as an unofficial, but very successful ambassador.

      To complete the picture of our Chairman, it has been said that he is 'a sincere Highlander ': to that can be added that he is also a sincerely religious man, as becomes an elder of the historic old Cramond Kirk.

***

CAMPBELL MACPHERSON, O.B.E.
NEWFOUNDLAND'S NEW LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR

      We have pleasure in announcing that Campbell Leonard Macpherson, O.B.E., son of Dr Cluny Macpherson, C.M.G., and one of the founder members of the Association, has been appointed LieutenantGovernor of Newfoundland, becoming the Queen's representative in what was till recent years, our oldest colony. We hear that the appointment has been hailed by all parties and creeds.

      Campbell Macpherson is the fifth generation of the well-known Newfoundland family which has lived there since his great-great grandfather, Peter Macpherson, sailed there from Greenock in 1804, being then seventeen years of age. Peter's grandson established the Macpherson Travelling Scholarships for visits to the Holy Land by the clergy, and his great grandson, Dr Cluny Macpherson, is dean of the medical profession in Newfoundland and distinguished himself in the First World War by his work in producing the first gas helmet.

      The new Governor was born in St John's in 1907, and was educated at the Methodist College, Westminster School, London, and Columbia University, New York. He is Managing Director of The Royal Stores Ltd. and its associated companies and a Director of the Horwood Lumber Company. He served as President of the Newfoundland Board of Trade and as Chairman of the Importers' Association. In 1945 he came to London as representative at the Conference of Commonwealth Chambers of Commerce.

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AN ENGLISH BRANCH NONAGENARIAN

      James Alan Macpherson, M.I.STRUCT.E., and Chartered Structural Engineer, was born on 1st March 1863, the year of the opening of the Highland Railway through Badenoch, at King's Place, Edinburgh.

      His father was a lithographer, who wished to paint in oils and, to further that ambition, moved to London when his son was three years old, but James Alan decided for the more practical profession of engineering. After finishing his education at Kilburn College, he served for twelve years with a firm of engineers at Poplar, learning his job the hard way, and at the same time qualifying by study for his life's work of designing bridges and large buildings.

      At the age of thirty he was appointed to Messrs Henry Young & Company, the well-known Westminster structural engineers, where he soon became Chief Designer. In 1909 he designed the first steelframed building in the new Regent Street, London, now occupied by Galeries Lafayette. Among others of his works are several Gaumont Cinemas, including a large one in Edinburgh, and the Lansdowne Bridge over the Indus.

      James Alan is a life member of the Clan Association and he and his brothers all contributed to the purchase of the Clan relics when the call was made in 1943. In 1944, when he was living near Wandsworth Common, a bomb made a direct hit on his next-door neighbour's house and partly destroyed his.

      He finally gave up work at the age of 85 and now lives in retirement near Guildford, Surrey. His eyesight is not quite what it was, but he is in perfect health, with an active and widely interested mind. We wish him many years of happy retirement, and shall look forward to recording the century with the comment, " Still going strong ".

CHIEF ELECTRICIAN TOM MACPHERSON, D.S.M.

      Tom Macpherson, son of Councillor T. A. W. Macpherson, Edinburgh, has been awarded the British Empire Medal in the New Year Honours for his services in the Royal Navy.

      He joined the Navy at the age of fifteen and has seen service in many parts of the world. In 1942, while serving in H.M.S. Foresight, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal for his conduct during an attack on the Russia-bound convoy they were escorting. A few months later he was not so fortunate: the Foresight was sunk by German dive bombers in the Mediterranean.

      This year he completes his twenty-four years' engagement in the Navy, and we wish him the best of fortune in his new life ashore.

      We hear also, on the point of going to press, that we can congratulate his sister Catherine on winning a Gillespie Scholarship.
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A MESSAGE FROM THE CHAIRMAN

CLANSMEN,
      Thanks to the work put in by my predecessors in the Chair, and by all our past office-bearers, we have considerable achievements to record.

      A few years ago we were little better than a broken Clan, landless, scattered over the world and out of touch with each other. Now we have a rallying ground in our Clan country, a home for our archives and relics, and greatest of all, over a thousand clansmen who already have claimed their heritage and joined the Association.

      But there are many thousands more, and their numbers are steadily growing. It is literally true that the sun never sets on the Clan, but however remote they are from Badenoch, they still have their share of the Clan spirit which responds to the call.

      I believe the time has come for us to start building a framework covering every country where we have our kith and kin, and that is every free country of the world, a framework of appointed Clan Representatives. Through them we shall ensure that no clansman, whether remote or close at hand, is unknown to us, or the Association unknown to him.

      This is a considerable task, I fully realise, but with the co-operation of the Chairmen of the Branches, both at home and abroad, and the help of you all by sending in names of relatives or friends for consideration by the Council, I believe that within three years we can complete the framework.

      I therefore make this preliminary appeal to all loyal clansmen at home and abroad, for their help in this campaign, this Three Years' Plan.

                                                        Councillor HUGH MACPHERSON, F.S.A.SCOT.,
                                                        BALNAGARROW, GLEBE ROAD,
                                                        EDINBURGH, 4
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THE DEATH OF THE MACKINTOSH
Home is the sailor, home from sea,
And the hunter home from the hill
.
                                                                                                           R. L. S.

      Och-on, Och-on.. . . A great Chief has passed. In the death of Vice-Admiral Lachlan Donald Mackintosh of Mackintosh, C.B., D.S.O., D.S.C., D.L., the Highlands have lost a man of great personality, who devoted himself to the service of his native county and to the welfare of his people.

      His Clan has lost a great Chief, who always had the good of his clansmen at heart.

      Since retiring from the Navy, he had devoted himself to the estates he had inherited, and on finding that his lovely home, Moy Hall, was doomed from dry rot, he was untiring in his efforts to get the new house built, and was arranging to open it this summer with a Rally of the Clan.

      During the years I was privileged to know him, he always showed himself a true and courteous friend, not only to me, but to all Macphersons who knew him. They, one and all, honoured and respected him and will miss him.

"Cha till, cha till, cha till mi tullleadh."

                                                                     ALLAN I. MACPHERSON,
                                                                     Hon. Vice-President,
                                                                     Clan Macpherson Association.

***

                               Sea-borne his sailor heart; air-borne a war-trained mind.
                               His vision urged him skyward to the dual role
                               Of sea-air warfare, fighting in two elements
                               Where ship and aeroplane were indivisible.

                               Captain he sailed in war, cruiser his Charybdis,
                              His aircraft carriers Eagle and Victorious;
                               Implacable his finest ship. But her fierce name
                               Fits not this genial all-unhating Admiral.

                              War backed to Peace. Clan Mackintosh became his ship.
                               Old world and new, he greeted Clansfolk everywhere;
                               Fostered their pride of race, re-linked them with their glens,
                               Re-lit the ancient love of Clansmen for their Chief.
                               None better could uphold a Highland dignity.
                               Nor grace the triple plumes of Chiefship more than he.
                                                                                                      M. B. H. RITCHIE.
                               Craigdhu.

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THE CLAN SCHOOL AT RUTHVEN
Extracts from The Canadian Times of 20th and 27th May 2058

      In view of the interest aroused by the success of the Ruthven School contingent in defeating our teams at football and shinty, we have asked Professor H. K. Macpherson, Dean of the Faculty of Biology at Toronto University, and at one time a Master at Ruthven, to tell us something about the origin of this famous school.

      The professor is the celebrated author of The Life History of a Highland Clan, that fascinating best-seller, in which he uses the history of his own clan over nearly a thousand years to prove his continuity theories of heredity.

      The school, which was established by my Clan at Ruthven, in Badenoch, Inverness-shire, Scotland, some forty years ago, can be said to have its origin in the persecutions and emigrations which followed the failure of the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745.

      Large numbers of my clansmen left their clan country and other parts of Scotland. Where they went can be traced by the still existing clan name given to their stopping places, many of which were the outposts of civilisation.

      They took their history, their language and their customs with them, and they kept looking back over their right shoulders to the land of their birth. More than that, their sons and their sons' sons still kept looking back and remembering they were clansmen.

      Distance was a formidable obstacle in those days, but, as early as 1895, the clan made its first come-back and held a gathering at the castle of its Chief in that year. Half a century later, after the first two world wars, and after more than one false start, the beginnings of the present world-wide organisation appeared.

The School Proposed
      Already some clansmen were returning to spend the evening of their lives in the Clan country, bringing back with them the knowledge and experience they had gained in every walk of life. They built airconditioned houses in the glens and, for a meeting place, took over one of the largest hotels and made it into the Badenoch Club, which functioned as a sort of unofficial headquarters, where many groups were formed and various schemes were discussed and debated.

      The educationist group under the leadership of Dr Lauchlan Macpherson, who had retired a short time before from the University of Melbourne, Australia, was particularly active. It held many 'gettogether ' meetings with the engineers, forest men, oil men, pastoralists, who - came to Badenoch for the rallies of the Clan, and kept up a vigorous correspondence with its opposite numbers overseas. Eventually it formulated its proposals for the school and placed them before the Chief-in-Council in January 2014.

      The scheme was received both at home and abroad with an enthusiasm which was damped only by the difficulties which were foreseen of raising funds in a period of excessive taxation.

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Aims and Purposes
      Perhaps I should explain that the data for this article are taken from, so far as the early history is concerned, my grandfather's old volumes of the Clan journal, Creag Dhubh. He had had the yearly issues bound together, and they were his favourite reading matter when he was a very old man. The more recent material comes from my own experiences at Ruthven, where I spent four years as a 'maighstear', and that as the result of one sentence which I read in one of the old joumals. It came from the Chief's speech on Opening Day and was the inspiration which led even[t]ually to my book, The Life History of a Highland Clan. But that is looking into the future.

      I have the professor's article about the proposed organisation in front of me as I write. The Group was quite definite about its aims from the beginning: the Clan School was not to be 'just another school', nor was it to be a revival of the defunct English public school type. It was very definitely to be a school for leadership., and leadership the hard way. Even in those days they were talking of those bases of the Ruthven system, the squad, the leader and the task. The independent group of five boys had been envisaged from the start, and the placing of every kind of responsibility upon it. So well has the principle been upheld that, even to-day, one of the commonest sights at Ruthven is a five-boy group setting out across country, with a couple of pack-ponies carrying food and kit, to carry out some allotted task in the Forest of Gaick.

      From the beginning, too, it was intended to devote a large part of the school to agriculture, forestry and several kinds of engineering, both as professional training and as training in leadership. In Badenoch at that time, the professor pointed out, we had men, retired and semi-retired, with full knowledge and experience of all the branches of those subjects, and they were ready and willing to pass on. their knowledge.

      This is the first mention of the 'seannachies', a name first given them by the boys, but later generally adopted, and always denoting a great measure of honour and respect. It has been said by critics in recent years that Ruthven could not have attained the success it has without the ' seannachies '. It is probably true that they constitute one of the two main factors, the other being the Clan spirit, which ruled that it was bad clansmanship to be dumb, and that was that.

Financial Considerations
      It is interesting to note that, except on the ground of finance, at no time was there any opposition to the proposals. On the contrary, it appears that the idea was recognised as a focus for the hitherto somewhat vague aspirations of clansmen who wanted to 'get together and do things', without being quite clear about what it was they wanted to do. A number of enthusiastic meetings were held by the overseas branches, whose members welcomed the prospect of being able to

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send their sons to the school, and in the journal are recorded many promises of funds and a number of practical suggestions.

      A ways and means committee was appointed and the task of accumulating funds begun. An office was set up in the club and complete plans prepared. It was estimated that a vigorous campaign could raise enough funds for at least a small start within five years, and from that point onwards the rate of expansion would depend on the further funds forthcoming, but amongst the many gifts and contributions was an unexpected windfall, which was outstanding in its magnificence and in its effects.

A Munificent Gift
      Senator Murdo I. Macpherson, of the British Columbia Branch, the greatest financial benefactor of the Clan to date, presented a million dollars to the School Fund.

      In his letter to the Chief, which I take from the 2017 number of the journal, the Senator says
           " . . . at the Clan Rally last year I realised for the first time the full scope of the proposals for the Clan School. . . . First, they ensure our future as a united Clan, and second, I guess they mean the boys will have the time of their lives and come out of it with better equipment for living than is given by any system I have ever known of. . . . It was an education to me to listen to some of the discussions, the practical people saying what the boy should be at the end of it and the educationists saying how it could be done.

           . . . When I came back home, I consulted with my family, and after full consideration, we offer a million dollars to the School Fund.

           . . . I have three young grandsons and it is our hope the school will be ready in time for them to belong. . . .

                                    We are happy to have made this gift, sir.
                                    With loyal greetings from my family and myself,

Sincerely yours."

      The gratitude of the Clan and the School are recorded in stone in the Old Burial Ground at Kingussie, where the Senator had asked that his ashes be interred.

Progress at Last
      Many other large donations came in and the publicity given to the million dollar gift reached many remote clansmen, who became enthusiastic supporters.

      With the finances now in order, the Committee set to work with renewed energy on a much extended scheme, to such effect that the foundation stone of the main building was laid by Duncan Macpherson of Cluny, the 28th Chief of the Clan, on the 7th April 2018.

      The school stands on a plateau about a mile from the town of Kingussie, on the other side of-the Spey Valley and close to the site of the old castle of Ruthven. Lying as it does between the Monadhliath

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Mountains and, the Cairngorms, two great stretches of uninhabited country, and within reach of that paradise for boys, the hundred square miles of the Forest of Gaick, with its corries and lochs and glens, no better site for such a school as Ruthven could be imagined.

      The main stone building faces north and the timber-built dormitories form two lines running east and west, enclosing the campus. The laboratories, workshops, printing press, weaving mill, stables and garages are a few hundred yards off to the west. There are also the sheep station at Killiehuntly, the cattle ranch in Glentruim and the underground distillery at the foot of Glen Tromie.

The Opening Day
      The opening day, on the 15th of August of the following year, was made a great occasion by the Clan. It was calculated, according to the journal, that over seven thousand persons of Macpherson blood, .two-thirds of them from overseas, and several hundred Cattanachs, Gillespies, Murdochs and MacVurichs, had gathered to take part. Besides thirty marquees on the campus, intended mainly for parents, a great camp had been set up on Spey meadows, near the airport, to accommodate the visitors.

      The proceedings began with a parade of the two hundred boys at the School. They wore the school uniform of Macpherson hunting tartan shirt, kilt and plaid, - deerskin sporran and blue bonnet with silver Clan badge. After inspection, with pipers at their head, they led the march across the Spey, through Kingussie, to Glen Gynach, numbers of clansmen joining on the way. As they passed the ruins of the old priory, they saluted the memory of their common ancestor, as every school party still does when it uses that road.

      On the hillside above was already gathered a great concourse of the Clan to take part in the religious service of the day. Aided by a loud-speaker system, Cluny and General Sir Herbert Macpherson, Chairman of the Council, read the lessons. The oldest living clergyman in the Clan, Dr Allan Macpherson of Edinburgh, who was over eighty years of age, and had been brought up the hill on one of the school ponies, spoke in his sermon of the Clan Spirit, which we had inherited from our great progenitor who had lived in this glen, a ,spirit which was something bigger than ourselves, which in practice carried out the Christian precept. He welcomed the great new enterprise "of which to-day we are assembled to see the small beginnings. May it grow in strength as the years pass. May the hundreds of young men who will leave this place carry with them, when they go out into the world, the beneficent and Christian Clan Spirit, which is their heritage, and of which the nations of the world stand so much in need."

[To be continued]

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Reports from the Branches

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Reports from the Branches

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Reports from the Branches

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Reports from the Branches

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Reports from the Branches

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Reports from the Branches

Prize Awarded

Obituary

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Financial Report

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Balance Sheet

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Membership Summary Report

Notices

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Back Cover Advetisement
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***

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